1887

Abstract

We recently reported that carbon monoxide (CO) has bactericidal activity. To understand its mode of action we analysed the gene expression changes occurring when , grown aerobically and anaerobically, is treated with the CO-releasing molecule CORM-2 (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer). Microarray analysis shows that the CORM-2 response is multifaceted, with a high number of differentially regulated genes spread through several functional categories, namely genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, regulators, and genes implicated in post-translational modification, such as chaperones. CORM-2 has a higher impact in cells grown anaerobically, as judged by the repression of genes belonging to eight functional classes which are not seen in the response of aerobically CORM-2-treated cells. The biological relevance of the variations caused by CORM-2 was substantiated by studying the CORM-2 sensitivity of selected mutants. The results show that the deletion of redox-sensing regulators SoxS and OxyR increased the sensitivity to CORM-2 and suggest that while SoxS plays an important role in protection against CORM-2 under both growth conditions, OxyR seems to participate only in the aerobic CORM-2 response. Under anaerobic conditions, we found that the heat-shock proteins IbpA and IbpB contribute to CORM-2 defence since the deletion of these genes increases the sensitivity of the strain. The induction of several genes and the hypersensitivity to CORM-2 of the Δ, Δ and Δ mutant strains suggest that CO has effects on the methionine metabolism of . CORM-2 also affects the transcription of several biofilm-related genes and increases biofilm formation in . In particular, the absence of or increases the resistance of to CORM-2, and deletion of leads to a strain that has lost its capacity to form biofilm upon treatment with CORM-2. In spite of the relatively stable nature of the CO molecule, our results show that CO is able to trigger a significant alteration in the transcriptome of which necessarily has effects in several key metabolic pathways.

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2009-03-01
2020-06-06
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