1887

Abstract

The activities of critical metabolic and regulatory proteins can be altered by exposure to natural or synthetic redox-cycling compounds. Many bacteria, therefore, possess mechanisms to transport or transform these small molecules. The opportunistic pathogen PA14 synthesizes phenazines, redox-active antibiotics that are toxic to other organisms but have beneficial effects for their producer. Phenazines activate the redox-sensing transcription factor SoxR and thereby induce the transcription of a small regulon, including the operon , which encodes an efflux pump that transports phenazines, and (), which encodes a putative monooxygenase. Here, we provide evidence that PumA contributes to phenazine resistance and normal biofilm development, particularly during exposure to or production of strongly oxidizing N-methylated phenazines. We show that phenazine resistance depends on the presence of residues that are conserved in the active sites of other putative and characterized monooxygenases found in the antibiotic producer We also show that during biofilm growth, PumA is required for the conversion of phenazine methosulfate to unique phenazine metabolites. Finally, we compare ∆ and ∆ strains in assays for colony biofilm morphogenesis and SoxR activation, and find that these deletions have opposing phenotypic effects. Our results suggest that, while MexGHI-OpmD-mediated efflux has the effect of making the cellular phenazine pool more reducing, PumA acts on cellular phenazines to make the pool more oxidizing. We present a model in which these two SoxR targets function simultaneously to control the biological activity of the phenazine pool.

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2018-05-01
2019-11-22
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