1887

Abstract

is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects more than 70 effector proteins into host plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system to cause a successful infection. However, the function of these effectors in plant cells, especially in the suppression of plant immunity, remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized two effectors, RipAW and RipAR, which share homology with the IpaH family of effectors from animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, that have a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain. Recombinant RipAW and RipAR show E3 ubiquitin ligase activity . RipAW and RipAR localized to the cytoplasm of plant cells and significantly suppressed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) responses such as the production of reactive oxygen species and the expression of defence-related genes when expressed in leaves of . Mutation in the conserved cysteine residue in the NEL domain of RipAW completely abolished the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and the ability to suppress PTI responses in plant leaves. These results indicate that RipAW suppresses plant PTI responses through the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Unlike other members of the IpaH family of effectors, RipAW and RipAR had no leucine-rich repeat motifs in their amino acid sequences. A conserved C-terminal region of RipAW is indispensable for PTI suppression. Transgenic plants expressing RipAW and RipAR showed increased disease susceptibility, suggesting that RipAW and RipAR contribute to bacterial virulence in plants.

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2017-07-01
2021-10-19
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