Summary: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the genomic DNA of penicillin-resistant strains of was carried out. Eleven clinical strains of serogroup 9 from different French towns and Paris hospitals were tested. The restriction enzymes and were used to digest intact chromosomes, and the fragments were resolved by field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Five strains were similar using and . Four others were closely related when using , and five others were closely related when using . These results suggest that 10 of these strains are genetically related and have a clonal origin. The profile of the eleventh strain was completely different. Thus, in a given serotype the spreading of penicillin resistance can result from both clonal and independent events. Five strains had similar FIGE profiles to strains first isolated in Spain, suggesting that a resistant strain had spread from Spain to France.


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