SUMMARY: There were found considerably fewer biochemically active microorganisms among heterotrophs inhabiting the equatorial-tropical zone of the World Ocean than in the high latitude area. Many micro-organisms with many-sided enzymic activities were present in the microbial population of the near-polar area, determining more profound transformations of organic matter in the waters of these areas as compared with the tropical area and consequently an increased concentration of biogenic substances. It is suggested that there is a unique exchange between the areas of low latitudes and those of high latitudes in the World Ocean. Currents driving equatorial-tropical waters to the north and south carry with them organic matter, chiefly allochthonous in origin; this material is more completely decomposed by the microbial species which inhabit high latitudes. The liberated biogenic substances are carried by currents into the depths of other geographic areas, thus increasing the reserve of substances taking part in the primary production of organic matter in these areas of the World Ocean.


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