1887

Abstract

Summary: Cytotoxic material (‘prymnesin’) excreted into the growth medium by the phytoflagellate was partially purified and crudely characterized. It proved to be a highly potent haemolysin; its solubility properties and some other characteristics are those of a lipid, perhaps a saponin. The high haemolytic activity which characterized the toxin was often also accompanied by a high ichthyotoxic activity. A method of locating haemolytic activity in a paper chromatogram is described. Fish were killed not by prymnesin alone, but were rendered highly susceptible to prymnesin poisoning by a range of cofactors: streptomycin sulphate, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride. Ichthyotoxicity in cofactor + prymnesin systems conformed within a wide concentration range to the relationship: × = , where a is a prymnesin concentration, a minimum concentration of cofactor which elicits a lethal effect in presence of , and Q is a cofactor-specific constant. The recognition of this relationship has enabled a sensitive assay to be developed. Practical implications are discussed and the hypothesis proposed that prymnesin acts on fish by inducing a state of abnormal permeability of the gill.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-24-2-165
1961-02-01
2021-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/24/2/mic-24-2-165.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-24-2-165&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Berry H. K., Cain L. 1949; A paper chromatographic technique for determining excretion of amino acids in presence of interfering substances. Arch. Biochem 24:179
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Collier B. H. 1951; Factors affecting the haemolytic action of ‘lysolecithin’ upon rabbit erythrocytes. J. gen. Physiol 35:617
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Droop M. R. 1954; A note on the isolation of small marine algae and flagellates in pure culture. J. mar. Biol. Ass. U.K 33:511
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Feigl F. 1954 Spot Tests 2 p. 288, 4th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier;
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Heftman E., Hayden A. L. 1952; Paper chromatography of steroid sapogenins and their acetates. J. biol. Chem 197:47
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kofler L., Wolkenberg A. 1925; Über das Verhalten von Saponinenbei der Dialyse. Biochem. Z 160:398
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Liebert F., Deerns W. M. 1920; Onderzoek naar de Oorzaak van een Vischsterfte in den polder Workumer-Nieuwland, Nabij Workum. Verh. Rijksinst. Vissch Onderz 1:81
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Otterstrøm C. V., Steeman-Nielsen E. 1940; Two cases of extensive mortality in fish caused by the flagellate Prymnesium parvum Carter. Rep. Dan. biol. Sta 44:5
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Reich K., Aschner M. 1947; Mass development and control of the phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum in fish ponds in Palestine. Palestine J. Bot., Jerusalem 4:14
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Reich K., Kahn J. 1954; A bacterial-free culture of Prymnesium parvum (Chrysomonadinae). Bull. Res. Counc. Israel 4:144
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Shilo M., Aschner M. 1953; Factors governing the toxicity of cultures containing the phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum Carter. J. gen. Microbiol 8:388
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Shilo M., Rosenberger R. 1960; Studies on the toxic principles formed by the chrysomonad Prymnesium parvum Carter. Symposium of the New York Academy of Natural Science in the Press
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Singer T. P., Kearney E. B. 1950; The l-amino acid oxidase of snake venom. Arch. Biochem 29:190
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Stoll A., Kreis W. 1951; Neue herzwirksame Glykoside aus der weissen Meerzwiebel. Helv. Chim. Acta 34:1482
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Windaus A. 1910; Über die quantitative Bestimmung des Chloresterins und der Chloresterinester in einigennormalen und pathologischenNieren. Hoppe-Seyl. Z 65:110
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Windaus A., Weinhold R. 1932; Über einige Additions-Verbindungen des Digitonins. Hoppe-Seyl. Z 126:299
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Yariv J. 1955; The toxin of Prymnesium parvum . Bull. Res. Coun. Israel 5A:96
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Yariv J. 1958 Toxicity of Prymnesium cultures Ph.D. thesis Hebrew University, Jerusalem: Hebrew manuscript
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-24-2-165
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-24-2-165
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error