1887

Abstract

Summary: The chromatin configurations of acid-Giemsa preparations of were followed sequentially, at 2 hr. intervals, for 48 hr. A series of broth cultures were inoculated with 0·1 ml. of a 7-day broth culture, incubated at 30° and centrifuged at 2 hr. intervals. The sedimented cells were used to inoculate agar plates for use in making smears by the agar block method. The smears were fixed in acid-alcohol, hydrolysed in -HC1 solution at 60° for 8 or 15 min. and stained with Giemsa. Samples of living cells, taken from the sedimented cells at all time intervals, were examined by phase-contrast and darkfield microscopy.

The majority of the early cells (0–16 hr.) were resistant to acid hydrolysis, being undifferentiated by 15 min. of hydrolysis until the 12th hr. of growth. After the 16th hr. of the growth cycle the cells showed an abrupt change in their reaction toward acid hydrolysis; subsequent preparations were hydrolysed for 8 min. The early cells appeared undifferentiated by phase contrast until approximately the 14th hr. of growth; after this time inclusions could be observed in the cells. Transparent cells containing dark inclusions were observed in the living cells by the 16 hr. of growth and coincided with the abrupt change of the acid-Giemsa cells toward acid hydrolysis.

The pattern of the chromatin configurations found in the acid-Giemsa cells consisted in : (1) an axial filament which fragmented into thick bars, from which spherical bodies were formed; (2) the direct division of the spherical bodies into smaller spheres, from which bead-like granules were formed by means of intermediate X-, Y-, and V-forms or the direct formation of rings of bead-like granules from the spherical bodies; (3) the re-formation of the axial filaments from the bead-like granules with the aggregation of all the chromatin material of the cell at the centre of the cells; (4) the division of the aggregated chromatin material on cell division and the extension of the chromatin material in the form of an axial filament; and (5) the re-formation of the spherical bodies and bead-like granules as outlined in steps (1) and (2) from the axial filaments.

Essentially the same types of chromatin configurations were observed in living cells. The most exact correlation between the living and fixed images of the chromatin bodies of occurred between the 18th and 30th hr. of the growth cycle. The correlation between the living and fixed images of the chromatin bodies of was less exact at other time intervals. Various theories concerned with the occurrence of axial filaments and chromatin aggregations in bacterial cells are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-21-1-109
1959-08-01
2022-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/21/1/mic-21-1-109.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-21-1-109&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Badian J. 1983; Eine cytologische Untersuchung über das Chromatin und den Entwicklungszyklus der Bakterien. Arch. Microbiol 4:490
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berghe L.Van Den. 1942; Sur la presence d’acide pentose-nucléque sous forme grains de ‘volutine’ dans les trypanosomes. Acta biol. belg 2:464
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bisset K. A. 1956; Cellular organization in bacteria. Symp. Soc. gen.Microbiol 6:1
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Casperson T., Brand K. 1941; Nucleotidumsatz and Wachstum bei Press hefe. Protoplasma 35:507
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chapman G. B., Kroll A. J. 1957; Electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of Spirillum serpens . J. Bact 73:63
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Clifton C. E., Ehrhard H. H. 1952; Nuclear changes in living cells of a variant of Bacillas anthracis. J. Bact 63:537
    [Google Scholar]
  7. DeLamater E. D. 1953; Structure and division of the bacterial nucleus. Bacterial Cytology, Symp. 6th Congr. Int. Microbiol Rome: p. 108
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Delaporte B. 1939; Recherches cytologiques sur les Bactéries et les Cyanophycees. Ren. gen. Bot 51:615–689748
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Delapore B. 1950; Observations on the cytology of bacteria. Advance. Genet 3:1
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dobell C. C. 1911; Contributions to the cytology of the bacteria. Qaart. J. micr. Sci 56:395
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Grimme A. 1902; Die wichtigsten Methoden der Bakterienfarbung in ihrer Wirkung auf die Membran der Protoplasten und die Einschliisse der Bakterienzelle. Zbl. Bakt Abt. 1. Orig. 32:81–161241
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Guilliermond A. 1908; Contribution à 1’etude cytologique des bacilles endo spores. Arch.Protisteak 12:9
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hartman P. E., Payne J., Mudd S. 1955; Cytological analysis of ultraviolet irradiated Escherichia coli. J. Bact 70:70
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hunter-Szybalska M. E., Szybalski W., DeLamater E. D. 1956; Temperature synchronization of nuclear and cellular division in Bacillus megaterium. J. Bact 71:17
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jacobson W., Webb M. 1952; The two types of nucleoproteins during mitosis. Exp. Cell Res 3:163
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kellenberger E. 1953; Les formes caractéristiques des nucléoides de E. coli et leurs transformation dues à l’action d’agents mutagenes-inducteurs et bactériophages. Bacterial Cytology. Symp. 6tA Congr. Int. Microbiol Rome: p. 45
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Knavsi G. 1951 Elements of Bacterial Cytology, 2nd ed.. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Co.;
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mason D. J., Powelson D. 1956; Nuclear division as observed in live bacteria by a new technique. J. Bact 71:474
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Meyer A. 1904; Orientierende Untersuchungen iiber Verbreitung, Morphologie und Chemie des Volutin. Bot.Ztg 62:118
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Miller T. H., Brummitt W. 1945 This is Photography, 1st ed.. Garden City N.Y.: Garden City Publishing Co.;
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mudd S., Smith A. G. 1950; Adaptation of cytological processing to electron microscopy; bacterial nuclei as vesicular structures. J. Bact 59:561
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Murray R. G. E. 1953; The problem of Axation for studies of bacterial nuclei. Bacterial Cytology, Symp. 6th Congr. Int. Microbiol Rome: p. 136
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Robinow C. F. 1944; Cytological observations on Bact. coli, Proteus vulgaris and various aerobic spore-forming bacteria with special reference to the nuclear structure. J. Hyg., Camb 43:413
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Robinow C. F. 1956a; The chromatin bodies of bacteria. Symp. Soc. gen. Microbiol 6:181
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Robinow C. F. 1956b; The chromatin bodies of bacteria. Bact. Rev 20:207
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Stempen H. 1950; Demonstration of the chromatinic bodies of Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris with the aid of the phase contrast microscope. J. Bact 60:81
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Stille B. 1937; Zytologische Untersuchungen an Bakterien mit Hilfe der Feul-genschen Nuclear reaktion. Arch. Mikrobiol 8:125
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Walton A. C. 1924; Studies on nematode gametogenesis. Z. Zell.- u. Gewebe-lehre 1:167
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Whitfield J. F., Murray R. G. E. 1954; A cytological study of the lysogenation of Shigella dysenteriae with P1 and P2 bacteriophages. Canad. J. gen.Microbiol 1:216
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Whitfield J. F., Murray R. G. E. 1956; The effects of the ionic environment on the chromatin structures of bacteria. Canad. J. gen Microbiol 2:245
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Williams M. A. 1955; Staining reactions of granules of spirilla species. Bact. Proc p. 34
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wilhams M. A., Rittenberg S. C. 1957; A taxonomic study of the genus Spirillum Ehrenberg. int. Bull. bact. Nomen. Taxon 7:49
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-21-1-109
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-21-1-109
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error