1887

Abstract

, isolate NE-32, is an endophyte of the Himalayan yew () that produces taxol, an important chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers. Conditions were determined to induce the perfect stage (teleomorph) of this organism in the laboratory as a critical first step to study inheritance of taxol biosynthetic genes. The perfect stage of NE-32 forms in a period of 3–6 weeks on water agarose with dried yew needles at 16–20 °C with 12 h of light per day. Morphological analysis of the teleomorph and sequencing of the 18S rDNA indicates that is the perfect stage of . Only certain plants (e.g. yews, some pines, pecan, oat and some barley cultivars) allow the production of perithecia. Exhaustive methylene chloride extraction of yew () needles removes their capacity to induce production of perithecia. The methylene chloride extract is able to induce formation of perithecia by strain NE-32 in a bioassay system utilizing the sterilized sheaths of the Cholla cactus () spine, indicating that a chemical compound(s) in yew stimulates the formation of the perfect stage. This hydrophobic plant compound(s) has been designated the perithecial-stimulating factor (PSF). The data suggest that plant products may play a role in regulating the biology of endophytic microbes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-8-2079
2000-08-01
2020-04-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/146/8/1462079a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-8-2079&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barr M. E.. 1975; Pestalosphaeria, a new genus in the Amphispaeriaceae. Mycologia67:187–194[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chang H. S., Chang J. M.. 1990; Pestalosphaeria hansenii, the teleomorph of an anamorph Pestalotiopsis sp., on mangrove (Kandelia candel (L.) Druce) leaves and its ascomatal formation under laboratory conditions. Bot Bull Acad Sin (Taipei)31:175–177
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Croan S. C., Kim-Young H., Kim Y. H.. 1997; Carpogenesis and basidiosporogenesis by Flammulina velutipes, Schizophyllum commune and Trametes versicolor in vitro. Mater Org (Berl)31:1–16
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dykstra M. J.. 1993; A Manual of Applied Techniques for Biological Electron Microscopy New York: Plenum;
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gooday G. W., Adams D. J.. 1993; Sex hormones and fungi. Adv Microb Physiol34:69–145
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hansen H. N., Zentmeyer G. A., Snyder W. C.. 1956; The perfect stage of Pestalotia. Phytopathology46:637
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hendrix J. W.. 1964; Sterol induction of reproduction and stimulation of growth of Pythium and Phytophthora. Ann NY Acad Sci144:1028–1029
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hess W. M.. 1966; Fixation and staining of fungus hyphae and host plant root tissues for electron microscopy. Stain Technol41:27–35
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hess W. M., Seegmiller R. E.. 1988; Computerized image analysis of resin-embedded hair. Trans Am Microsc Soc107:421–425[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hyde K. D.. 1996; Fungi from palms. XXV. Pestalosphaeria elaeidis. Mycotaxon57:353–357
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kang J. C., Hyde K. D., Kong R. Y. C.. 1999; Studies on Amphisphaeriales: the Amphisphaeriaceae (sensu stricto). Mycol Res103:53–64[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lee S. B., Taylor J. W.. 1990; Isolation of DNA from fungal mycelia and single spores. In PCR Protocols: a Guide to Methods and Applications pp.282–287Edited by Innis M. A..others New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Li J. Y, Strobel G. A., Sidhu R. S., Hess W. M., Ford E. J.. 1996; Endophytic taxol-producing fungi from bald cypress, Taxodium distichum. Microbiology142:2223–2226[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Long D. M., Smidansky E. D., Archer A., Strobel G. A.. 1998; In vivo addition of telomeric repeats to foreign DNA generates extrachromosomal DNAs in the taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Fungal Genet Biol24:335–344[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Meguro S., Takagi N., Imamura H.. 1988; The effects of electric impulses on fruiting body formation of Lentinus edodes. Bull Kyushu Univ For59:61–69
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mirocha C. J., Swanson S. P.. 1983; Regulation of perithecia production in Fusarium roseum by zearalenone. J Food Safety5:41–53[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Nag Raj T. R.. 1985; Redisposals and redescriptions in the Monochaetia–Seiridium, Pestalotia–Pestalotiopsis complexes. II. Pestalotiopsis besseyii (Guba) comb. nov. and Pestalosphaeria varia sp. nov. Mycotaxon22:52–63
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nelson T. A., Toussoun T., Marasas W. F. O.. 1983; Fusarium species University Park, PA: Penn State University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Sathiarajan P. K., Govindan M.. 1989; Leaf blight of coconut caused by Pestalospaeria elaeidis (Booth & Robertson) Vander AA – a new record. Agric Res J Kerala27:61–62
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Shoemaker R. A., Simpson J. A.. 1981; A new species of Pestalosphaeria on pine (Pinus) with comments on the generic placement of the anamorph. Can J Bot59:986–999[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Siddiq A. A., Ingram D. S., Johnstone K., Friend J., Ashby A. M.. 1989; The control of asexual and sexual development by morphogens in fungal pathogens. Asp Appl Biol23:417–426
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Spurr A. R.. 1969; A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res26:31–43[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Strobel G., Yang X., Sears J., Kramer R., Sidhu R. S., Hess W. M.. 1996a; Taxol from Pestalotiopsis microspora, an endophytic fungus of Taxus wallachiana. Microbiology142:435–440[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Strobel G. A., Hess W. M., Ford E. J., Sidhu R. S., Yang X.. 1996b; Taxol from fungal endophytes and the issue of biodiversity. J Ind Microbiol17:417–423[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tan Y. H., Chang S. T.. 1989; Effect of growth regulators enzyme inhibitors and stimulatory additives on the vegetative development and fructification of Lentinus edodes. In Mushroom Science, Pt II: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on the Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi pp.267–277
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Upadhyay R. V., Strobel G. A., Hess W. M.. 1991; Morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the conidiomata of Aschochyta cypericola. Mycol Res95:785–791[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Valent B., Chumley F. G.. 1991; Molecular genetic analysis of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Annu Rev Phytopathol29:443–467[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Wolf J. C., Mirocha C. J.. 1977; Control of sexual reproduction in Gibberella zeae (Fusarium roseum ‘‘Graminearum’’) . Appl Environ Microbiol33:546–550
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Yildiz A.. 1998; Effects of various proportions of different additive substances on the micelle growth of Pleurotis florida Fovose, on duration of formation and development of basidiocarps and on the yield. Turk J Biol22:127–142
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Zhu P., Ge Q., Xu T.. 1991; The perfect stage of Pestalotiopsis from China. Mycotaxon40:129–140
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-8-2079
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-8-2079
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error