1887

Abstract

Two genes, and , with nearly identical nucleotide sequences were cloned from A3(2). The deduced amino acid sequences of the product of these two genes showed high similarity to BcpA2 of and other biotin-containing proteins from different organisms assumed to be the α subunit of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase. A gene, , encoding the carboxyl transferase subunit of this enzyme complex was also characterized. Strains disrupted in did not show any change in acetyl- or propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity, whilst cell-free extracts of a mutant strain contained a reduced level of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. No mutants in could be isolated, suggesting that the gene may be essential. Heterologous expression of , and in and reconstitution of enzyme activity confirmed that PccB is the β subunit of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase and that either AccA1 or AccA2 could act as the α component of this enzyme complex. The fact that mutants appear to be inviable suggests that this gene encodes a biotinylated protein that might be shared with other carboxyl transferases essential for the growth of .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-11-3109
1999-11-01
2019-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/145/11/1453109a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-11-3109&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barker, D. & Campbell, A. ( 1981; ). The birA gene of Escherichia coli encodes a biotin holoenzyme synthetase. J Mol Biol 146, 469-492.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bartolomé, B., Jubete, Y., Martı́nez, E. & de la Cruz, F. ( 1991; ). Construction and properties of a family of pACYC184-derived cloning vectors compatible with pBR322 and its derivatives. Gene 102, 75-78.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Behal, V., Jechova, V., Vanek, Z. & Hostalek, Z. ( 1977; ). Alternative pathways of malonyl-CoA formation in Streptomyces aureofaciens. Phytochemistry 16, 347-350.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Best, E. & Knauf, V. ( 1993; ). Organization and nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin carboxylase protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase. J Bacteriol 175, 6881-6889.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bierman, M., Logan, R., O’Brien, K., Seno, E. T., Nagaranja Rao, R. & Schoner, B. E. ( 1992; ). Plasmid cloning vectors for the conjugal transfer of DNA from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces spp. Gene 116, 43-49.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Birch, A., Leiser, A. & Robinson, J. ( 1993; ). Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Streptomyces cinnamonensis. J Bacteriol 175, 3511-3519.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bloch, K. & Vance, D. ( 1977; ). Control mechanisms in the synthesis of saturated fatty acids. Annu Rev Biochem 46, 263-298.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bradford, M. ( 1976; ). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 248-254.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bramwell, H., Nimmo, H. G., Hunter, I. S. & Coggins, J. R. ( 1993; ). Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): purification of the enzyme, cloning of the ppc gene and over-expression of the protein in a streptomycete. Biochem J 293, 131-136.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bramwell, H., Hunter, I. S., Coggins, J. R. & Nimmo, H. G. ( 1996; ). Propionyl-CoA carboxylase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): cloning of the gene encoding the biotin-containing subunit. Microbiology 142, 649-655.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Browner, M., Taroni, F., Stzul, E. & Rosenberg, L. ( 1989; ). Sequence analysis, biogenesis and mitochondrial import of the alpha subunit of rat liver propionyl-CoA carboxylase. J Biol Chem 264, 1280-1285.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Burnette, W. N. ( 1981; ). ‘‘Western blotting’’: electrophoretic transfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gels to unmodified nitrocellulose and radiographic detection with antibody and radioiodinated protein A. Anal Biochem 112, 195-203.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cole, S. T., Brosch, R., Parkhill, J. & 39 other authors ( 1998; ). Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393, 537–544.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cronan, J. E.Jr ( 1990; ). Biotination of proteins in vivo. J Biol Chem 265, 10327-10333.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Donadio, S., Staver, M. & Katz, L. ( 1996; ). Erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea does not require a functional propionyl-CoA carboxylase Mol Microbiol 19, 977-984.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Erfle, J. D. ( 1973; ). Acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylation by Mycobacterium phlei. Partial purification and some properties of the enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta 316, 143-155.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Floriano, B. & Bibb, M. J. ( 1996; ). afsR is a pleiotropic but conditionally required regulatory gene for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol Microbiol 21, 385-396.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gorst-Allman, C. P., Rudd, B. A. M., Chang, C. J. & Floss, H. G. ( 1981; ). Biosynthesis of actinorhodin. Point of dimerization. J Org Chem 46, 455-456.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gottschalk, G. (1986). Bacterial metabolism, 2nd edn. New York: Springer.
  20. Hanahan, D. ( 1983; ). Studies of transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. J Mol Biol 166, 557-580.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Harder, M. E., Beacham, I., Cronan, J.Jr, Beachan, K., Honegger, J. & Silbert, D. ( 1972; ). Temperature-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli requiring saturated and unsaturated fatty acids for growth: isolation and properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69, 3105-3109.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Harwood, J. L. ( 1988; ). Fatty acid metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 39, 101-138.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Henrikson, K. P. & Allen, S. H. G. ( 1979; ). Purification and subunit structure of propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase of Mycobacterium smegmatis J Biol Chem 254, 5888-5891.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hopwood, D. A. & Sherman, D. H. ( 1990; ). Molecular genetics of polyketides and its comparison to fatty acid biosynthesis. Annu Rev Genet 24, 37-66.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hopwood, D. A., Bibb, M. J., Chater, K. F. & 7 other authors (1985). Genetic Manipulation of Streptomyces: a Laboratory Manual. Norwich: John Innes Foundation.
  26. Hopwood, D., Chater, K. & Bibb, M. J. ( 1994; ). Genetics of antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), a model streptomycete. In Genetics and Biochemistry of Antibiotic Production, pp. 65-102. Edited by L. C. Vining & C. Studdard. Wenheim: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  27. Hunaiti, A. R. & Kolattukudy, P. E. ( 1982; ). Isolation and characterisation of an acyl-coenzyme A carboxylase from an erythromycin-producing Streptomyces erythyreus. Arch Biochem Biophys 216, 362-371.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Janssen, G. R. & Bibb, M. J. ( 1993; ). Derivatives of pUC18 that have BglII sites flanking a modified multiple cloning site and that retain the ability to identify recombinant clones by visual screening of Escherichia coli colonies. Gene 124, 133-134.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kao, C., Luo, G., Katz, L., Cane, D. & Khosla, C. ( 1994; ). Engineered biosynthesis of a complete macrolactone in a heterologous host. J Am Chem Soc 116, 11612-11613.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Katz, L. & Donadio, S. ( 1993; ). Polyketide synthesis: prospects for hybrid antibiotics. Annu Rev Microbiol 47, 875-912.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kondo, H., Shiratsuchi, K., Yoshimoto, T., Masuda, T., Kitazono, A., Tsuru, D., Anai, M., Sekiguchi, M. & Tanabe, T. ( 1991; ). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Escherichia coli: gene organization and nucleotide sequence of the biotin carboxylase subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88, 9730-9733.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Laakel, M., Lebrihi, A., Khaoua, S., Schneider, F., Lefebvre, G. & Germain, P. ( 1994; ). A link between primary and secondary metabolism: malonyl-CoA formation in Streptomyces ambofaciens growing on ammonium ions or valine. Microbiology 140, 1451-1456.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680-685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Li, S. J. & Cronan, J. E.Jr ( 1992; ). The gene encoding the biotin carboxylase subunit of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase. J Biol Chem 267, 16841-16847.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. MacNeil, D. J., Gewain, K. M., Ruby, C. L., Dezeny, G., Gibbons, P. H. & MacNeil, T. ( 1992; ). Analysis of Streptomyces avermitilis genes required for avermectin biosynthesis utilizing a novel integration vector. Gene 111, 61-68.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Martı́n, J. F. & Liras, P. ( 1989; ). Organization and expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Annu Rev Microbiol 43, 173-206.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Nikolau, B. J., Wurtele, E. S. & Stumpf, P. K. ( 1985; ). Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in maize leaves. Anal Biochem 149, 448-453.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Norman, E., De Smet, K. A. L., Stoker, N. G., Ratledge, C., Wheeler, P. R. & Dale, J. W. ( 1994; ). Lipid synthesis in Mycobacteria: characterization of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein genes from Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Bacteriol 176, 2525-2531.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Paget, M. S. B., Chamberlin, L., Atrih, A., Foster, S. J. & Buttner, M. J. ( 1999; ). Evidence that the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σE is required for normal cell wall structure in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J. Bacteriol 181, 204-211.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Polakis, S., Guchhait, R. & Lane, M. ( 1972; ). On the possible involvement of a carbonyl phosphate group intermediate in the adenosine triphosphate-dependent carboxylation of biotin. J Biol Chem 247, 1335-1337.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Redenbach, M., Kieser, H. M., Denapaite, D., Eichner, A., Cullum, J., Kinashi, H. & Hopwood, D. ( 1996; ). A set of ordered cosmids and a detailed genetic and physical map for the 8 Mb Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) chromosome. Mol Microbiol 21, 77-95.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  43. Sanger, F., Nicklen, S. & Coulson, A. R. ( 1977; ). DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74, 5463-5467.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Studier, F. W. & Moffatt, B. A. ( 1986; ). Use of the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes. J Mol Biol 189, 113-130.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Wasserman, H., Rodgers, G. & Keith, D. ( 1976; ). Undecylprodigiosin. Tetrahedron 32, 1851-1854.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wright, F. & Bibb, M. J. ( 1992; ). Codon usage in the G+C-rich Streptomyces genome. Gene 113, 55-65.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Zerbe-Burkhardt, K., Ratnatilleke, A., Phillipon, N., Birch, A., Leiser, A., Vrijbloed, J., Hess, D., Hunziker, P. & Robinson, J. ( 1998; ). Cloning, sequencing, expression, and insertional inactivation of the gene for the large subunit of the coenzyme B12-dependent isobutyryl-CoA mutase from Streptomyces cinnamonensis. J Biol Chem 273, 6508-6517.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-11-3109
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-11-3109
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error