1887

Abstract

was shown to possess a secreted aspartic proteinase gene family of at least four members . Within the family there was 77-87% identity at the nucleotide level and 76-92% identity at the amino acid level. Transcription of three members of this gene family required an acidic medium (pH<4.5) and either nitrogen or sulphur derepression. Regulation was co-ordinate and hierarchical, with pH occupying the higher position in the hierarchy. Exogenous protein increased transcript levels, probably via the provision of metabolic intermediates rather than by direct induction of gene expression. was not expressed under these conditions. SAP1-SAP4 are predicted to have almost identical substrate-binding sites and therefore substrate specificity. It is proposed that exist to provide amplified expression of the secreted aspartic proteinase because protein, an important secondary nitrogen source for this fungus, requires extensive degradation to make its nitrogen available to the cell.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-8-2355
1998-08-01
2021-05-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/144/8/mic-144-8-2355.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-8-2355&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ashikari T., Nakamura N., Tanaka Y., Kiuchi N., Shibano Y., Tanaka T., Amachi T., Yoshizumi H. 1986; Rhizopus raw- starch-degrading glucoamylase: its cloning and expression in yeast.. Agric Biol Chem 50:957–964
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashikari T., Amachi T., Yoshizumi H., Horiuchi H., Takagi M., Yano K. 1990; Correct splicing of modified introns of a Rhizopus proteinase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Mol Gen Genet 223:11–16
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barrett A.J. 1994; Classification of peptidases.. Methods Enzymol 244:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Berka R.M., Ward M., Wilson L.J., Hayenga K.J., Kodama K.H., Carlomagno L.P., Thompson S.A. 1990; Molecular cloning and deletion of the gene encoding aspergillopepsin A from Aspergillus awamori.. Gene 86:153–162
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berka R.M., Carmona C.L., Hayenga K.J., Thompson S.A., Ward M. 1993; Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus oryzae gene encoding aspergillopepsin O.. Gene 125:195–198
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Betzel C., Pal G.P., Saenger W. 1988; Three-dimensional structure of proteinase K at 0·5-nm resolution.. Eur J Biochem 178:155–171
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Betzel C., Singh T.P., Visanji M., Peters K., Fittkau S., Saenger W., Wilson K.S. 1993; Structure of the complex of proteinase K with a substrate analogue hexapeptide inhibitor at 2·2 Å resolution.. J Biol Chem 268:15854–15858
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bouchara J.-P., Oumeziane N.A., Lissitzky J.-C., Larcher G., Tronchin G., Chabasse D. 1996; Attachment of spores of the human pathogenic fungus Rhizopus oryzae to the extracellular matrix components.. Eur J Cell Biol 70:76–83
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cabot E. 1989; A sequence editor for microcomputer users.. Trends Biochem Sci 14:14
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chambers R.S., Sullivan P.A. 1993; Expression of the exoglucanase gene in yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans.. FEMS Microbiol Lett 111:63–68
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Church G.M., Gilbert W. 1984; Genomic sequencing.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:1991–1995
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Clark S.J., Templeton M.D., Sullivan P.A. 1997; A secreted aspartic proteinase from Glomerella cingulata: purification of the enzyme and molecular cloning of the cDNA.. Microbiology 143:1395–1403
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cutfield S.M., Dodson E.J., Anderson B.F., Moody P.C.E., Marshall C.J., Sullivan P.A., Cutfield J.F. 1995; The crystal structure of a major secreted aspartic proteinase from Candida albicans in complexes with two inhibitors.. Structure 3:1261–1271
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Delaney R., Wong R.N.S., Meng G., Wu N., Tang J. 1987; Amino acid sequence of rhizopuspepsin isozyme pI5.. J Biol Chem 262:1461–1467
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Espinel-lngroff A., Oakley L.A., Kerkering T.M. 1987; Opportunistic zygomycotic infections.. Mycopathologia 97:33–41
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fallon K., Bausch K., Nooran J., Huguenel E., Tamburini P. 1997; Role of aspartic proteases in disseminated Candida albicans infection in mice.. Infect Immun 65:551–556
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Farley P.C., Ikasari L. 1992; Regulation of the secretion of Rhizopus oligosporus extracellular carboxyl proteinase.. J Gen Microbiol 138:2539–2544
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Feinberg A.P., Vogelstein B. 1983; A technique for radio-labelling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity.. Anal Biochem 132:6–13
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Friedberg D., Peleg Y., Monsonego A., Maissi S., Battat E., Rokem J.S., Goldberg I. 1995; The fumR gene encoding fumarase in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae-. cloning, structure and expression.. Gene 163:139–144
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Frye C.B., Reinhardt D.J. 1993; Characterization of groups of the zygomycete genus Rhizopus.. Mycopathologia 124:139–147
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Griffioen L., Laan R.J., Mager W.H., Planta R.J. 1996; Ribosomal protein gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows a biphasic response to nutritional changes.. Microbiology 142:2279–2287
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gunkel F.A., Gassen H.G. 1989; Proteinase K from Tri- tirachium album Limber.. Eur J Biochem 179:185–194
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Haas M.J., Genvario R., Feairheller S.H. 1990; Construction of a Rhizopus delemar genomic library and screening for direct lipase gene expression.. Food Biotechnol 4:647–661
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Horiuchi H., Yanai K., Okazaki T., Takagi M., Yano K. 1988; Isolation and sequencing of a genomic clone encoding aspartic proteinase of Rhizopus niveus.. J Bacteriol 170:272–278
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hube B., Monod M., Schofield D.A., Brown A.J.P., Gow N.A.R. 1994; Expression of seven members of the gene family encoding secretory aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans.. Mol Microbiol 14:87–99
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Irelan J., Miao V., Selker E.U. 1993; Small scale DNA preps for Neurospora crassa.. Fungal Genet Newsl 40:24
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Jarai G., Buxton F.P. 1994; Nitrogen, carbon and pH regulation of extracellular acidic proteases of Aspergillus niger.. Curr Genet 26:238–244
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Jarai G., Kirchherr D., Buxton F.P. 1994; Cloning and characterization of the pepD gene of Aspergillus niger which codes for a subtilisin-like protease.. Gene 139:51–57
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Li W., Mitchell A.P. 1997; Proteolytic activation of Rimlp, a positive regulator of yeast sporulation and invasive growth.. Genetics 145:63–73
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Li W.-H., Gojobori T., Nei M. 1981; Pseudogenes as a paradigm of neutral evolution.. Nature 292:237–239
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lim G., Tan T.K., Rahim N.A. 1987; Variations in amylase and protease activities among Rhizopus isolates.. MIRCEN J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 3:319–322
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Logemann J., Schell J., Willmitzer L. 1987; Improved method for the isolation of RNA from plant tissues.. Anal Biochem 163:16–20
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Longacre A., Reimers J.M., Gannon J.E., Wright B.E. 1997; Flux analysis of glucose metabolism in Rhizopus oryzae for the purpose of increasing lactate yields.. Fungal Genet Biol 21:30–39
    [Google Scholar]
  34. MacCabe A.P., van den Hombergh J.P.T.W., Tilburn J., Arst H.N., Visser J. 1996; Identification, cloning and analysis of the Aspergillus niger gene pacC, a wide domain regulatory gene responsive to ambient pH.. Mol Gen Genet 250:367–374
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Monod M., Togni G., Hube B., Sanglard D. 1994; Multiplicity of genes encoding secreted aspartic proteinases in Candida species.. Mol Microbiol 13:357–368
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Nout M.J.R., Rombouts F.M. 1990; Recent developments in tempe research.. J Appl Bacteriol 69:609–633
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ohtsuru M., Tang J., Delaney R. 1982; Purification and characterization of rhizopuspepsin isoenzymes from a liquid culture of Rhizopus chinensis.. Int J Biochem 14:925–932
    [Google Scholar]
  38. van de Peer Y., Jansen J., de Rijk P., de Wathcer R. 1997; Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.. Nucleic Acids Res 24:111–116
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Radford A., Stone P.J., Taleb F. 1996; Cellulase and amylase complexes.. In The Mycota. III. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology pp. 269–294 Brambl R., Marzluf G. A. Edited by Berlin: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  40. de Rijk P., van de Peer Y., de Wachter R. 1997; Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.. Nucleic Acids Res 24:117–123
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rodriguez R.J. 1993; Polyphosphate present in DNA preparations from filamentous fungal species of Colletotrichum inhibits restriction endonucleases and other enzymes.. Anal Biochem 209:291–297
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Ross I.K., De Bernardis F., Emerson G.W., Cassone A., Sullivan P.A. 1990; The secreted aspartate proteinase of Candida albicans: physiology of secretion and virulence of a proteinase-deficient mutant.. J Gen Microbiol 136:687–694
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sakaguchi K., Tagaki M., Horiuchi H., Gomi K. 1992; Fungal enzymes used in oriental food and beverage industries.. In Applied Molecular Genetics of Filamentous Fungi pp. 54–99 Kinghorn J. R., Turner G. Edited by Glasgow: Blackie;
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Samai B.B., Karan B., Boone T.C., Chen K.K., Rohde M.F., Stabinsky Y. 1989; Cloning and expression of the gene encoding a novel proteinase from Tritirachium album Limber.. Gene 85:329–333
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Samai B.B., Karen B., Boone T.C., Osslund T.D., Chen K.K., Stabinsky Y. 1990; Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding a novel, thermostable serine proteinase from the mould Tritirachium album Limber.. Mol Microbiol 4:1789–1792
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sambrook J., Fritsch E.F., Maniatis T. 1989 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn.. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Smolenski G., Sullivan P.A., Cutfield S.M., Cutfield J.F. 1997; Analysis of secreted aspartic proteinases from Candida albicans: purification and characterization of individual Sapl, Sap2 and Sap3 isoenzymes.. Microbiology 143:349–356
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sorenson W.G., Hesseltine C.W. 1966; Carbon and nitrogen utilization by Rhizopus oligosporus.. Mycologia 58:681–689
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Suguna K., Bott R.R., Padlan E.A., Subramanian E., Sheriffs S., Cohen G.H., Davies D.R. 1987; Structure and refinement at 1-8 Å resolution of the aspartic proteinase from Rhizopus chinensis.. J Mol Biol 196:877–900
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Suguna K., Padlan E.A., BottR- Boger, Parris K.D., Davies D.R. 1992; Structures of complexes of rhizopuspepsin with pepstatin and other statine-containing inhibitors.. Proteins Struct Fund Genet 13:195–205
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Takahashi K. 1988; Determination of the amino acid sequences of the two major isoenzymes of rhizopuspepsin.. J Biochetn 103:162–167
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Tilburn J., Sarkar S., Widdick D.A., Espeso E.A., Orejas M., Mungroo J., Penalva M.A., Arst H.N. 1995; The Aspergillus PacC zinc finger transcription factor mediates regulation of both acid- and alkaline-expressed genes by ambient pH.. EMBO J 14:779–790
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Vierula P.J. 1997; Cloning and characterization of a Neuro- spora crassa ribosomal protein gene, crps-7.. Curr Genet 31:139–143
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Wang H.L., Hesseltine C.W. 1965; Studies on the extra-cellular proteolytic enzymes of Rhizopus oligosporus.. Can J Microbiol 11:727–732
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Webster J. 1980 Introduction to Fungi, 2nd edn. p. 213. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-8-2355
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-8-2355
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error