1887

Abstract

is a recently identified species which is implicated in oral candidosis in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. The species shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, . In this study the phylogenetic relationship between these two species was investigated and a comparison of putative virulence factors was performed. Four isolates of C. dubliniensis from different clinical sources were chosen for comparison with two reference C. albicans strains. First, the distinct phylogenetic position of C. dubliniensis was further established by the comparison of the sequence of its small rRNA subunit with representative Candida species. The G dubliniensis isolates formed true unconstricted hyphae under most induction conditions tested but failed to produce true hyphae when induced using -acetylglucosamine. Oral G dubliniensis isolates were more adherent to human buccal epithelial cells than the reference C. albicans isolates when grown in glucose and equally adherent when grown in galactose. The G dubliniensis isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B. Homologues of seven tested G albicans secretory aspartyl proteinase (SAP) genes were detected in G dubliniensis by Southern analysis. virulence assays using a systemic mouse model suggest that G dubliniensis is marginally less virulent than C. albicans. These data further confirm the distinct phenotypic and genotypic nature of G dubliniensis and suggest that this species may be particularly adapted to colonization of the oral cavity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-4-829
1998-04-01
2021-05-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/144/4/mic-144-4-829.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-4-829&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Anthony R.M., Midgley J., Sweet S.P., Howell S.A. (1995); Multiple strains of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of HIV positive and HIV negative patients.. Microb Ecol Health Dis 8:23–30
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barns S.M., Lane D.J., Sogin M.L., Bibeau C., Weisburg W.G. (1991); Evolutionary relationships among pathogenic Candida species and relatives.. Journal of Bacteriology 173:2250–2255 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boerlin P., Boerlin-Petzold F., Durussel C., Addo M., Pagani J-L., Chave J-P., Bille J. (1995); Cluster of atypical Candida albicans isolates in a group of human immunodeficiency viruspositive drug users.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33:1129–1135 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Borg M., Ruchel R. (1988); Expression of extracellular acid proteinase by proteolytic Candida spp. during experimental infection of oral mucosa.. Infection and Immunity 56:626–631 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boucher, H., Mercure, S., Montplaisir S., Lemay G. (1996); A novel group I intron in Candida dubliniensis is homologous to a Candida albicans intron.. Gene 180:189–196 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Buffo J., Herman M.A., Soli D.R. (1984); A characterisation of pH-regulated dimorphism in Candida albicans.. Mycopathologia 85:21–30 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chavanet P., Lopez J., Grappin M., Bonnin A., Duong M., Waldner A., Buisson M., Camerlynck P., Portier H. (1994); Cross-sectional study of the susceptibility of Candida isolates to antifungal drugs & in vitro-in vivo correlation in HIV-infected patients.. AIDS 8945–950
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Coleman D.C., Sullivan D.J., Bennett D.E., Moran G.P., Barry J., Shanley D.B. (1997a); Candidiasis: the emergence of a novel species, Candida dubliniensis.. AIDS 11:557–567 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Coleman D., Sullivan D., Haynes K., Henman M., Shanley D., Bennett D., Moran G., McCreary C., O\\'Neill L., Harrington B. (1997b); Molecular and phenotypic analysis of Candida dubliniensis-. a recently identified species linked with oral candidosis in HIV-infected and AIDS patients.. Oral Diseases 3:suppl. S96–S101 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cutler J.E. (1991); Putative virulence factors of Candida albicans.. Annual Review of Microbiology 45:187–218 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Douglas J.L., Houston J.G., McCourtie J. (1981); Adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells after growth on different carbon sources.. Fems Microbiology Letters 12:241–243 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Felsenstein J. (1985); Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap.. Evolution 39:783–791 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fonzi W.A., Irwin M.Y. (1993); Isogenic strain construction and gene mapping in Candida albicans.. Genetics 134:717–728 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gillum A.M., Tsay E.Y.H., Kirsch DR. (1984); Isolation of the Candida albicans gene for orotidine-5\\'-phosphate decarboxylase by complementation of S. cerevisiae ura3 and E. coli pyrF mutations.. Molecular & General Genetics 198:179–182 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gow N.A.R., Gooday GW. (1982); Vacuolation, branch production and linear growth of germ tubes of Candida albicans.. Journal of General Microbiology 128:2195–2198
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gow N.A.R., Robbins P.W., Lester J.W., Brown A.J.P., Fonzi W.A., Chapman T., Kinsman O.S. (1994); A hyphal-specific chitin synthase gene (CHS2) is not essential for growth, dimorphism, or virulence of Candida albicans.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:6216–6220 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gustafson K.S., Vercellotti G.M., Bendel C.M., Hostetter
  18. M. K. (1991); Molecular mimicry in Candida albicans.. Journal of Clinical Investigation 87:1896–1902 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hazen K.C. (1995); New and emerging yeast pathogens.. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 8:462–478 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hendriks L., Goris A., Neefs J., Van de Peer Y., Hennerbert G., De Wachter R. (1989); The nucleotide sequence of the small ribosomal subunit RNA of the yeast Candida albicans and the evolutionary position of the fungi among the eukaryotes.. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 12:223–229 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hendriks L., Goris A., Van de Peer Y., Neefs J-M., Vancanneyt M„ Kersters., Hennebert K., G. L., De Wachter R. (1991); Phylogenetic analysis of five medically important Candida species as deduced on the basis of small ribosomal subunit RNA sequences. Journal of General Microbiology 1371223–1230
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hube B., Monod M., Schofield D.A., Brown A.J.P., Gow N.A.R. (1994); Expression of seven members of the gene family encoding secretory aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans.. Molecular Microbiology 14:87–99 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jukes T. H., Cantor C. R. 1969 Evolution of protein molecules.. In: Munro H.N. eds. Mammalian Protein Metabolism vol. vol. 3 New York:: Academic Press;21–132
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kraft R., Tardiff J., Ktauter K.S., Leinwand L.A. (1988); Using mini-prep plasmid DNA for sequencing double stranded templates with Sequenase®.. BioTechniques 6:544–547
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kurtzman C.P., Robnett C.J. (1997); Identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeasts based on nucleotide divergence in the 5\\' end of the large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA gene.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35:1216–1223 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee H., Birren B., Lai E. (1991); Ultraviolet nicking of large DNA molecules from pulsed-field gels for Southern transfer and hybridisation.. Anal Biocbem 199:29–34 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lee KL., Buckley HR., Campbell HR. (1975); An amino acid liquid synthetic medium for development of mycelial and yeast forms of Candida albicans.. Sabouraudia-journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology 13:148–153 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Le Guennec R., Reynes J., Mallie M., Pujol C., Janbon F., Bastide J-M. (1995); Fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains from AIDS patients: multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis and antifungal susceptibilities.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33:2732–2737 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McCourtie J., Douglas J. (1981); Relationship between cell surface composition of Candida albicans and adherence to acrylic after growth on different carbon sources.. Infection and Immunity 32:1234–1241 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. McCullough MJ., Ross BC., Dwyer BD., Reade PC. (1994); Genotype and phenotype of oral Candida albicans from patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.. Microbiology 140:1195–1202 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McCullough M., Ross B., Reade P. (1995); Characterization of genetically distinct subgroup of Candida albicans strains isolated from oral cavities of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33:696–700 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mahrous M., Lott TJ., Meyer SA., Sawant AD., Ahearn DG. (1990); Electrophoretic karyotyping of typical and atypical Candida albicans.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 28:876–881 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mattia E., Carruba G., Angiolella L., Cassone A. (1982); Induction of germ tube formation by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in Candida albicans: uptake of inducer and germinative response. J Bacteriol 152555–562
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Medlin L., Elwood HJ., Stickel S., Sogin ML. (1988); The characterisation of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA coding regions. Gene 71491–499
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Monod M., Togni G., Hube B., Sanglard D. (1994); Multiplicity of genes encoding secreted aspartic proteinases in Candida species.. Molecular Microbiology 13:357–368 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Moran GP., Sullivan DJ., Henman MC., McCreary CE., Harrington BJ., Shanley DB., Coleman DC. (1997); Antifungal drug susceptibilities of oral Candida dubliniensis isolates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non- HIV-infected subjects and generation of stable fluconazole- resistant derivatives in vitro.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:617–623 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Odds FC. (1974); The effect of growth medium on filament production in Candida albicans.. Sabouraudia-journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology 12:112–119 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Odds FC., Schmid J., Soil DR. 1990 Epidemiology of Candida infections in AIDS.. In: Van den Bossche H., MacKenzie D.W.R., Cauwenbergh G., Van Cutsem J., Drouhet E., Dupont B. New York:: Plenum Press;67–73
  39. Olsen G J, Woese C. R. (1993); Ribosomal RNA: a key to phylogeny.. Faseb Journal 7:113–123 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Pfaller MA. (1996); Nosocomial candidiasis: emerging species, reservoirs, and modes of transmission.. Clinical Infectious Diseases 22:S89–S94 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Pfaller MA., Rinaldi MG., Galgiani JN., Bartlett MS., Body
  42. Espinel-lngroff A., Fromtling A., R. A., Hall GS., Hughes
  43. Odds E., F. C., Sugar AM. (1990); Collaborative investigation of variables in susceptibility testing of yeasts.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Powderly WG. (1992); Mucosal candidiasis caused by nonalbicans species of Candida in HIV-positive patients.. AIDS 6:604–605 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rose MD., Winston F., Hieter P. (1990) Methods in Yeast Genetics - a Laboratory Course Manual Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rubtsov PM., Musakhanov MM., Zakharyev VM., Krayev AS., Skryabin KG., Bayev AA. (1980); The structure of the yeast ribosomal RNA genes. I. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Nucleic Acids Research 8:5779–5794 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Rüchel R. 1992 Proteinase.. In New Strategies in Fungal Disease Edited by Bennet J. E., R. J. Hay, Peterson P. K. Edinburgh:: Churchill Livingstone;17–31
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Saitou N., Nei M. (1987); The neighbor-joining method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4:406–425
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sambrook J., Fritsch EF., Maniatis T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. edition, Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Schmid J., Odds F., Wiselka MJ., Nicholson KG., Soil DR. (1992); Genetic similarity and maintenance of Candida albicans strains from a group of AIDS patients, demonstrated by DNA fingerprinting.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30:935–941 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sullivan D., Coleman D. (1998); Candida dubliniensis: characteristics and identification.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36:329–334 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Sullivan D., Bennett D., Henman M., Harwood P., Flint S., Mulcahy F., Shanley D., Coleman D. (1993); Oligonucleotide fingerprinting of isolates of Candida species other than C. albicans and of atypical Candida species from human immunodeficiency virus-positive and AIDS patients. J Clin Microbiol 31,2124—2133.
  53. Sullivan D J., Westerneng T J., Haynes K A., Bennet D E, Coleman D. C. (1995); Candida dubliniensis sp. nov.: phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel species associated with oral candidosis in HIV-infected individuals.. Microbiology 141:1507–1521 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Sullivan D J., Henman M C., Moran G P., O'Neill L., Bennett D E., Shanley D B, Coleman D. C. (1996); Molecular genetic approaches to identification, epidemiology and taxonomy of nonalbicans Candida species.. J Med Microbiol 44:399–408 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Sullivan D J., Haynes K A., Bille J., Boerlin P., Rodero L., Lloyd S., Henman M, Coleman D. C. (1997); Widespread geographic distribution of oral Candida dubliniensis strains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35:960–964 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Vasquez J A., Beckley A., Sobel J D, Zervo M. J. (1991); Comparison of restriction enzyme analysis and pulsed-field gradient gel electrophoresis as typing systems for Candida albicans.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 29962–967
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Wong O C, Clark-Walker G. D. (1990); Sequence of the gene for the cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA small subunit from Candida {Torulopsis) glabrata.. Nucleic Acids Research 18:1888–1888 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-4-829
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-4-829
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error