Three glycosyltransferases are involved in tylosin biosynthesis in The first sugar to be added to the polyketide aglycone (tylactone) is mycaminose and the gene encoding mycaminosyltransferase is (). However, targeted disruption of did not lead to the accumulation of tylactone under conditions that normally favour tylosin production; instead, the synthesis of tylactone was virtually abolished. This may, in part, have resulted from a polar effect on the expression of genes downstream of . particularly () which encodes crotonyl-CoA reductase, an enzyme that supplies 4-carbon extender units for polyketide metabolism. However, that cannot be the entire explanation, since tylosin production was restored at about 10% of the wild-type level when was re-introduced into the disrupted strain. When glycosylated precursors of tylosin were fed to the disrupted strain, they were converted to tylosin, confirming that two of the three glycosyltransferase activities associated with tylosin biosynthesis were still intact. Interestingly, however, tylactone also accumulated under such conditions and, to a much lesser extent, when tylosin was added to similar fermentations. It is concluded that glycosylated macrolides exert a pronounced positive effect on polyketide metabolism in


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