In A3(2) the and genes are essential for sporulation, their deduced products being a possible transcriptional activator and an RNA polymerase sigma factor, respectively. In a survey of DNA from diverse actinomycetes by Southern blotting, all samples tested hybridized with , but only those representing genera capable of producing sporulating aerial mycelium hybridized with . It is postulated that may play a more intimate role in hyphal fragmentation processes (including sporulation) than . The and homologues ( and ) of were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to functional tests in and mutants. The genes were closely similar, but not identical, to their counterparts at the DNA and deduced protein levels, and both gene products could function well in . However, studies with hybrid transcription units suggested that the promoter region of is somewhat inefficient in .


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