1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: Chemically modified lipopolysaccharides of were tested for mitogenicity on mouse spleen cells as well as antagonism of the mitogenicity of intact lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All the lipopolysaccharide preparations deacylated by different alkaline treatments suffered a drastic loss of mitogenicity. The mitogenic activity of lipid A was also lost when succinic residues were introduced on hydroxyl groups. Partially deacylated alkaline-treated preparations (but not completely deacylated preparations) inhibited the activation of splenic B-cells by LPS. They were found to be toxic to spleen cells, however, and to suppress not only the mitogenicity of LPS but that of concanavalin A as well. This inhibitory action was not exhibited when all of the fatty acid was eliminated. Succinylated lipid A, on the other hand, was not toxic to the cells and inhibited the B-cell mitogenicity of lipopolysaccharide (but not the T-cell mitogenicity of concanavalin A). Chemical analysis revealed that about 4.6 mol of succinic acid had been introduced into lipid A by succinylation, and that the fatty acid and phosphate composition was unchanged by this treatment. Macrophages do not seem to participate in this inhibition. Inhibition was observed when succinylated lipid A was added either at the same time or after lipid A mitogen, but optimal inhibition was expressed when it was added to the culture 3 h before LPS. Inhibition was not affected by washing the cells before adding LPS. Inhibition increased as the ratio of suppressor to mitogen increased, suggesting that the succinylated lipid A competes with intact LPS.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2503
1992-12-01
2021-08-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/138/12/mic-138-12-2503.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2503&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Danner R. L., Joiner K. A. & Parrillo J. E. ( 1987;). Inhibition of endotoxin-induced priming of human neutrophils of lipid X and 3-aza-lipid X.. Journal of Clinical Investigation 80, 605-612.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Erwin A. L., Mandrell R. E. & Munford R. S. ( 1991;). Enzymatically deacylated Neisseria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits murine splenocyte mitogenesis induced by LPS. . Infection and Immunity 59, 1881-1887.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Galanos C., Lehmann V., Loderitz O., Rietschel E. T., Westphal O., Brade H., Brade L., Freudenberg M. A., Hansen-Hagge T., Loderitz T., Mckenzie G., Shade U., Strittmatter W., Tanamoto K., Zahringer U., Imoto M., Yoshimura Y., Yamamoto Y., Kusumoto S. & Shiba T. ( 1984;). Endotoxic properties of chemically synthesized lipid A part structures. Comparison of synthetic lipid A precursor and synthetic analogues with biosynthetic precursor and free lipid A.. European Journal of Biochemistry 140, 221-227.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Galanos C., Loderitz O., Freudenberg M. A., Brade L., Shade U., Rietschel E. T., Kusumoto S. & Shiba T. ( 1986;). Biological activity of synthetic heptaacyl lipid A representing a component of Salmonella minnesota R 595 lipid A. . European Journal of Biochemistry 160, 55-59.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Galanos C., Loderitz O., Freudenberg M., Rietschel E. T., Westphal O., Brade H., Brade L., Shade U., Imoto M., Yoshimura H., Kusumoto S. & Shiba T. ( 1985;). Synthetic and natural Escherichia coli free lipid A express identical endotoxic activities. . European Journal of Biochemistry 148, 1-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Galanos C., Loderitz O. & Westphal O. ( 1971;). Preparation and properties of antisera against the lipid A component of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.. European Journal of Biochemistry 24, 116-122.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Homma J. Y., Matsuura M., Kanegasaki S., Kawakubo Y., Kojima Y., Shibukawa N., Kumazawa Y., Yamamoto A., Tanam0To K., Yasuda T., Imoto M., Yoshimura H., Kusumoto S. & Shiba T. ( 1985;). Structural requirements of lipid A responsible for the functions: a study with chemically synthesized lipid A and its analogues.. Journal of Biochemistry 98, 395-406.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Kanegasaki S. , Tanamoto K,. . , Yasuda T., Homma J. Y., Matsuura M. , Nakatsuka M,. , Kumazawa Y,. , Yamamoto Y. , Shiba T,. , Kusumoto S. , Imoto M., Yoshimura H. . & Shimamoto T. ( 1984;). Biological activities of analogues of lipid A based on the revised structural model.. European Journal of Biochemistry 143, 237-242.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kanegasaki S., Tanamoto K., Yasuda T., Homma J. Y., Matsuura M., Nakatsuka M., K. Umaza Wa Y., Yamamoto Y., Shiba T., Kusumoto S., Imoto M., Yoshimura H. & Shimamoto T. ( 1986;). Structure-activity relationship of lipid A: comparison of biological activities of natural lipid A and synthetic lipid A's with different fatty acid compositions.. Journal of Biochemistry 99, 1203-1210.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kirkland Y. N., Qureshi N. & Takayama K. ( 1991;). Diphosphoryl lipid A derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides inhibits activation of 702/3 cells by LPS.. Infection and Immunity 59, 131-136.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kotani S., Takada H., Takahashi I., Tsujimoto M., Ogata T., Ikeda T., Harada K., Okumura H., Tamura T., Tanaka S., Shiba T., Kusumoto S., Imoto M., Yoshimura H. & Kasai N. ( 1986;). Low endotoxic activities of synthetic salmonella-type lipid A with an additional acyloxyacyl group on the 2-amino group of (l-+6)glucosamine disaccharide 1,4'-bisphosphate. . Infection and Immunity 52, 872-884.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kotani S., Tanaka H., Tsujimoto M., Ogata T., Takahashi T., Ikeda T., Otsuka T., Shimauchi H., Kasai N., Mashimo J., Nagao S., Tanaka A., Tanaka S., Harada K., Nagaki K., Kitamura H., Shiba T., Kusumoto S., Imoto M. & Yoshimura H. ( 1985;). Synthetic lipid A with endotoxic and related biological activities comparable to those of a natural lipid A from an Escherichia coli Re mutant. . Infection and Immunity 49, 225-237.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Loppnow H., Brade H., Durrbaum I., Dinarello C. A., Kusumoto S., Rietschel E. T. & Frad H. D. ( 1989;). IL-I induction-capacity of defined lipopolysaccharide partial structures.. Journal of' Immunology 142, 3229-3238.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lowry O. H., Roberts N. R., Leiner K. Y., Wu M. L. & Farr A. ( 1954;). The quantitative histochemistry of brain.. Journal of Biological Chemistry 207, 1-17.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lüderitz O., Freudenberg M., Galanos C., Lehmann V., Rietschel E. T. & Shaw D. H. ( 1982;). Lipopolysaccharides of gram negative bacteria.. Current Topics in Membranes and Transport 17, 79–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Pohlman T. H., Munford R. S. & Harlan J. M. ( 1987;). Deacylated lipopolysaccharide inhibits neutrophil adherence to endothelium induced by lipopolysaccharide in vitro. . Journal of Experimental Medicine 165, 1393-1402.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Proctor R. A., Will J. A., Burhop K. E. & Raetz C. R. H. ( 1986;). Protection of mice against lethal endotoxemia by a lipid A precursor.. Infection and Immunity 52, 905-907.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Qureshi N., Honovich J. P., Hara H., Cotter R. J. & Takayama K. ( 1988;). Location of fatty acids in lipid A obtained from lipopolysaccharide of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides ATCC 17023. . Journal of Biological Chemistry 263, 5502-5504.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Qureshi N., Takayama K. & Kurtz R. ( 1991;). Diphosphoryl lipid A obtained from the nontoxic lipopolysaccharide of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides is an endotoxin antagonist in mice. . Infection and immunity 59, 441-444.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Rietschel E. T., Galanos C., Tanaka A., Ruschmann E., L0Deritz O. & Westphal O. ( 1971;). Biological activities of chemically modified endotoxins.. European Journal of Biochemistry 22, 218-224.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Schenck J. R., Hargie M. P., Brown M. S., Ebert D. S., Yoo A. L. & Mcintire F. C. ( 1969;). The enhancement of antibody formation by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and detoxified derivatives. . Journal of immunology 102, 1411-1422.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sibley C. H., Terry A. & Raetz C. R. H. ( 1988;). Induction of K light chain synthesis in 702/3 B lymphoma cells by chemically defined lipid A precursors. . Journal of Biological Chemistry 263, 5098-5103.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Strittmatter R., Weckesser J., Salimath P. V. & Galanos C. ( 1983;). Nontoxic lipopolysaccharide from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides ATCC 17023. . Journal of Bacteriology 260, 16089-16098.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Strominger J. L., Park J. T. & Thompson R. E. ( 1959;). Composition of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus: its relation to the mechanism of action of penicillin. . Journal of Biological Chemistry 234, 3263-3271.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Takayama K., Qureshi N., Beutler B. & Kirkland T. N. ( 1989;). Diphosphoryl lipid A from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides ATCC 17023 blocks induction of cachectin in macrophages by lipopolysaccharide. . Infection and Immunity 57, 1336-1339.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tanamoto K., Abe C. , Homma J. Y. & Kojima Y. ( 1979;). Regions of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa essential for antitumor and interferon-inducing activities. . European Journal of Biochemistry 97, 623-629.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Tanamoto K., Abe C., Homma J. Y., Kuretani K., Hoshi A. & Kojima Y. ( 1978;). A compound possessing antitumor and interferon-inducing activities derived from the common antigen (OEP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. Journal of Biochemistry 83, 711-718.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tanamoto K., Galanos C., Lüderitz O., Kusumoto S. & Shiba T. ( 1984;). Mitogenic activities of synthetic lipid A analogs and suppression of mitogenicity of lipid A.. Infection and Immunity 44, 427-433.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tanamoto K., Zähringer U., Mckenzie G., Galanos C., Rietschel E. T., Lüderitz O., Kusumoto S. & Shiba T. ( 1984;). Biological activities of synthetic lipid A analogs: pyrogenicity, lethal toxicity, anticomplementary activity and induction of Limulus amoebocyte lysate. . Infection and Immunity 44, 421-426.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tanamoto K., Shade U., Rietschel E. T., Kusumoto S. & Shiba T. ( 1990;). Endotoxic induction of prostaglandin release from macrophages by nontoxic lipid A analogs synthesized chemically.. Infection and Immunity 58, 217-221.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Westphal O., Loderitz O. & Bister F. ( 1952;). Ober die Extraktion von Bakterien mit Phenol/Wasser.. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2503
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2503
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error