Summary: Cephalosporin biosynthetic activity and extracellular protease production increased during growth of in defined medium, while the level of guanosine 5′-diphosphate 3′-diphosphate (ppGpp) remained very low and stable. Cephalosporin biosynthesis (measured in resting cell systems) was initiated during early exponential growth in complex media, without appreciable change in the small ppGpp pool. Nutritional shift-down induced by withdrawal of Casamino acids caused a transient increase in ppGpp and a reduction of RNA accumulation. The increase in ppGpp was small in very young cultures, but increased as the culture aged. Twenty-seven spontaneous thiostrepton-resistant mutants were isolated and partially characterized. Most of them had a reduced ppGpp-forming ability and gave normal titres of cephalosporin. However, in complex medium, some mutants did not produce cephalosporins or extracellular protease, whereas others overproduced cephalosporins. The results indicate that, in , there is no obligatory relationship between the initiation of secondary metabolism and the stringent response.


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