Summary: An analysis of the genes governing the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of was performed. A 9 kb HI fragment, located 30 to 39 kb counterclockwise of the RI site of , coded for all known Bet activities. The following genes were identified: the gene for the choline dehydrogenase, the gene for the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and the gene or operon for the high-affinity choline transport. The and the genes were named in this paper, and the clockwise gene order was shown to be Subcloning gave plasmids which expressed each of the three Bet activities separately. The cloned genes remained osmotically regulated, indicating the existence of several osmotically regulated promoters in the region. , which carried the region of in the broad-host-range vector pRK293 expressed the three Bet activities and displayed increased osmotic tolerance in the presence of choline.


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