Summary: The outer membrane of , and cell envelopes appeared as three fractions after sucrose gradient centrifugation. Each outer membrane fraction was contaminated with succinate dehydrogenase activity from the cytoplasmic membrane fraction. Similarly the inner membrane fraction was contaminated with 2-ketodeoxyoctonate and outer membrane proteins including the porin(s). The separation of these two membranes was not facilitated by variations in lysozyme treatment, cell age, presence or absence of flagella, or longer lipopolysaccharide chain length. Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate extraction resulted in an outer membrane fraction which contained some inner membrane contamination and produced multiple bands upon sucrose gradient centrifugation. Triton X-100 extraction removed the inner membrane from the outer membrane and Triton X-100/EDTA treatment extracted lipopolysaccharide-rich regions of the outer membrane which contained almost exclusively the porin(s). These data indicated that the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope were very difficult to separate, possibly because of extensive fusions between these two membranes.


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