SUMMARY: Procedures for the introduction of plasmid DNA into Gram-negative bacteria have been adapted and optimized to permit transformation of the plant pathogen pathovar with the cloning vector pKT230 and other broad-host-range plasmids. The technique involves CaC1-induced competence and heat shock and is similar to that routinely used for Wild-type X. c. strains appear to restrict incoming unmodified DNA, so that plasmid DNA for transformation must be prepared from X. c. (into which it has previously been introduced by conjugation). To overcome this disadvantage a restriction-deficient mutant has been isolated.


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