1887

Abstract

Small (3.5 1) laboratory microcosms containing water, sediment and were treated with the herbicides diquat and terbutryne. After treatment total numbers of planktonic bacteria increased significantly by 3-11-fold and heterotroph counts also rose significantly, by 3-23-fold but the population increases of exoenzyme-producing bacteria (3-113-fold) were not always significant. As the plants stopped photosynthesizing and decomposed, pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations declined, whilst alkalinity and free CO concentrations increased. All these changes were very similar to results from analogous experiments in natural waters and microcosms are recommended as substitutes for field experiments with aquatic herbicides.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2309
1984-09-01
2021-10-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/130/9/mic-130-9-2309.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2309&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abbot W. 1966; Microcosm studies on estuarine waters. I. The replicability of microcosms. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 38:258–270
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brooker M. P., Edwards R. W. 1973; Effects of the herbicide paraquat on the ecology of a reservoir. I. Botanical and chemical aspects. Freshwater Biology 3:157–175
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Collins V. G., Willoughby L. G. 1962; The distribution of bacteria and fungal spores in Blelham Tarn with particular reference to an experimental overturn. Archives of Microbiology 43:294–307
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cooke G. D. 1967; The pattern of autotrophic succession in laboratory microcosms. Bioscience 17:717–721
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cooke G. D. 1977; Experimental aquatic laboratory ecosystems and communities. In Aquatic Microbial Communities pp. 59–99 Cairns J. Edited by New York :: Garland.;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cragg B. A. 1980 The role of microorganisms in the deoxygenation of water treated with herbicide. PhD thesis UWIST, UK.:
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dodge A. D. 1971; The mode of action of the bipyridylium herbicides paraquat and diquat. En-deavour 30:130–135
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ferebee R. N., Guthrie R. K. 1973; The effects of selected herbicides in bacterial populations in an aquatic environment. Water Resources Bulletin of the American Water Resources Association 9:1125–1135
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Frank P. A., Oho N. E., Bartley T. R. 1961; Techniques for evaluating aquatic weed herbicides. Weeds 9:515–521
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fry J. C., Cragg B. A. 1983; The effect of death of Spirogyra spp. tryne treatment on lacustrine bacteria. In Abstracts from the Third International Symposium on Microbial Ecology p. 69: East Lansing:: Michigan State University.;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fry J. C., Humphrey N. C. B. 1978a; The effect of paraquat induced deaths of aquatic plants on heterotrophic activity of freshwater bacteria. In Proceedings of the British Crop Protection Conference Weeds 2: pp. 595–601
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fry J. C., Humphrey N. C. B. 1978b; Techniques for the study of bacteria epiphytic on aquatic macrophytes. In Techniques for the Study of Mixed Populations: Society for Applied Bacteriology Technical Series No. 11 pp. 1–29 Lovelock D. W., Davies R. Edited by London:: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fry J. C., Zia T. 1982; Viability of heterotrophic bacteria in freshwater. Journal of General Microbio-logy 128:2841–2850
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fry J. C., Brooker M. P., Thomas P. L. 1973; Changes in the microbial populations of a reservoir treated with the herbicide paraquat. Water Research 7:395–407
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Funderbunk H. M., Bozarth G. A. 1967; Review of the metabolism and decomposition of diquat and paraquat. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 15:563–567
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Golterman H. L., Clymo R. S. 1969 Methods for Physical and Chemical Analysis of Water: IBP Handbook No. 8. Oxford:: Blackwells.;
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Harris R. F., Sommers L. E. 1968; Plate-dilution frequency technique for assay of microbial ecology. Applied Microbiology 16:330–334
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hodgson R. H., Otto N. E. 1963; Pondweed growth and response to herbicides under controlled light and temperature. Weeds 11:232–237
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Humphrey N. C. B. 1977 The effect of herbicide on the microbial populations of a pond. PhD thesis UWIST, UK.:
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jewell W. J. 1971; Aquatic weed decay.Dissolved oxygen utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus regeneration. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 43:1457–1467
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mccartney H. A., Unsworth M. H. 1975; A spectroradiometer for measuring the spectral distribution of radiation in plant canopies. In Light as an Ecological Factor: The 16th Symposium of the British Ecological Society pp. 565–568 Evans G. C., Bainbridge R., Rackman O. Edited by Oxford: Blackwells;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mackereth F. J. H, Heron J., Talling J. F. 1978 Water Analysis: Freshwater Biological Association Publication No. 36. Windermere:: Freshwater Biological Association.;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ministry Of Agriculture Fisheries And Food. 1979 Guidelines for the Use of Herbicides on Weeds in or near Watercourses and Lakes. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Booklet No. 2078. Pinner:: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Montgomery H. A. C, Thom N. S., Cockburn A. 1964; Determination of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method and the solubility of oxygen in pure water and sea water. Journal of Applied Chemistry 14:280–296
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Parkes R. J. 1982; Methods for enriching, isolating and analysing microbial communities in laboratory systems. In Microbial Interactions and Communities 1 pp. 45–102 Bull A. T., Slater J. H. Edited by London:: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Robson T. O., Fowler M. C., Barrett P. R. F. 1976; Effect of some herbicides on freshwater algae. Pesticide Science 7:391–402
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sharpe A. N., Jackson A. K. 1972; Stomaching: a new concept in bacteriological sample preparation. Applied Microbiology 24:175–178
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Simsiman G. V., Chester G., Daniel T. C. 1972; Chemical control of aquatic weeds and its effect on the nutrient and redox status of water and sediment. Proceedings of the Conference on Great Lakes Research 15:166–180
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stumm W., Morgan J. J. 1981 Aquatic Chemistry: An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibria in Natural Waters, 2nd edn. pp. 171–204 New York:: Wiley.;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Talling J. F. 1973; The application of some electrochemical methods to the measurement of photosynthesis and respiration in freshwaters. Freshwater Biology 3:335–362
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wetzel R. G. 1975 Limnology. Philadelphia:: Saunders.;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2309
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2309
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error