1887

Abstract

The major organic osmoregulatory solutes of 36 cyanobacteria from a wide range of environmental sources have been examined using C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These strains were also examined for their salt-tolerance, and could be arranged in three salt-tolerance groups, designated freshwater, marine and hypersaline. The most salt-tolerant cyanobacteria in the hypersaline group are properly classified as moderately halophilic. Cyanobacteria from all habitats and taxonomic groups accumulated organic osmoregulatory solutes, and the chemical class of the solute correlated with the salt-tolerance and habitat of the strain. Freshwater strains accumulated simple saccharides, predominantly sucrose and trehalose; marine strains accumulated the heteroside -α--glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-glycerol, and hypersaline strains accumulated sucrose and/or trehalose together with glycine betaine or the novel solute -glutamate betaine (-trimethyl--glutamate) or they accumulated glycine betaine alone. The results suggest that the presence of certain major organic osmoregulatory solutes may be useful in the numerical taxonomy of cyanobacteria, and in the identification of some ionic characteristics of the environment of origin of each isolate.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2177
1984-09-01
2021-08-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/130/9/mic-130-9-2177.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2177&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Batterton J. C., Van Baalen C. 1971; Growth responses of blue-green algae to sodium chloride concentration. Archives of Microbiology 76:151–165
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blumwald E., Tel-Or E. 1982; Osmoregulation and cell composition in salt-adaptation of Nostoc muscorum. Archives of Microbiology 132:168–172
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Borowitzka L. J. 1981; Solute accumulation and regulation of cell water activity. In Physiology and Biochemistry of Drought Resistance pp. 97–130 Paleg L. G., Aspinall D. Edited by New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Borowitzka L. J., Demmerle S., Mackay M. A., Norton R. S. 1980; Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance study of osmoregulation in a blue-green alga. Science 210:650–651
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brock T. D. 1976; Halophilic-blue-green algae. Archives of Microbiology 107:109–111
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown A. D. 1976; Microbial water stress. Bacteriological Reviews 40:803–846
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown A. D., Simpson J. R. 1972; Water relations of sugar-tolerant yeasts: the role of intracellular polyols. Journal of General Microbiology 72:589–591
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Castenholtz R. W. 1970; Laboratory culture of thermophilic cyanophytes. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Hydrologie 32:538–551
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Craigie J. S. 1974; Storage Products. In Botanical Monographs 10: Algal Physiology and Bio-chemistry, pp. 206–235 Stewart W. D. P. Edited by Oxford: Blackwell Scientific;
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dakin H. D., West R. 1929; Note on trimethyl-α- glutarobetaine. Journal of Biological Chemistry 83:773–776
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Eugster H. P., Hardie L. A. 1978; Saline Lakes. In Lakes - Chemistry, Geology, Physics pp. 237–293 Lerman A. Edited by New York: Springer-Verlag;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Feige G. B. 1972; Ecophysiological aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in marine blue-green algae lichen Lichna pygmaea Ag. Zeitschrift Jur Pflanzen- physiologie 68:121–126
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Galinski E. A., TrüPER H. G. 1982; Betaine, a compatible solute in the extremely halophilic phototrophic bacteium Ectothiorhodospira halochloris. FEMS Microbiology Letters 13:357–360
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Golubic S. 1980; Halophily and halotolerance in cyanophytes. Origins of Life 10:169–183
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gow J. A., Macleod R. A., Goodbody M., Frank D., Devoe L. 1981; Growth characteristics at low Na+ concentration and the stability of the Na+ requirement of a marine bacterium. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 27:350–363
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hocking A. D., Norton R. S. 1983; Natural- abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the internal solutes of xerophilic fungi. Journal of General Microbiology 129:2915–2925
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hof T., Frémy P. 1933; On Myxophyceae living in strong brines. Recueil des travaux botaniques neerlan- dais 30:140–161
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kao O. H. W, Berns D. S., Town W. R. 1973; The characterization of C-phycocyanin from an extremely halo-tolerant blue-green alga, Coccochloris elabens. Biochemical Journal 131:39–50
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kauss H. 1967; Metabolism of isofioridoside (0-a-D- galactopyranosyl-( 1 -→ 1 Fglycerol) and osmotic balance in the fresh water alga Ochromonas. Nature; London: 2141129–1130
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kauss H. 1968; a-Galactosyl-glyceride und osmoregulation in Rotalgen. Zeitschrift Jur Pflanzen- physiologie 58:428–433
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kauss H. 1977; Biochemistry of osmoregulation. In International Review of Biochemistry 13 Plant Biochemistry II pp. 119–140 Northcote D. H. Edited by Baltimore: University Park Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kremer B. P. 1979; Photoassimilatory products and osmoregulation in marine Rhodophyceae. Zeitschrift Jur Pflanzenphysiologie 93:139–147
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mackay M. A., Norton R. S., Borowitzka L. J. 1983; Marine blue-green algae have a unique osmoregulatory system. Marine Biology 73:301–307
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miller D. M., Jones J. H., Yopp J. H., Tindall D. R., Schmid W. E. 1976; Ion metabolism in a halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica. Archives of Microbiology III:145–149
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Mohammad F. A. A, Reed R. H., Stewart W. D. P. 1983; The halophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis DUN 52 and its osmotic responses. FEMS Microbiology Letters 16:287–290
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Norton R. S. 1979; Identification of mollusc metabolites by natural-abundance 13C NMR studies of whole tissue and tissue homogenates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 63B:67–72
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Norton R. S. 1980; 13C NMR studies of intact cells and tissue. Bulletin of Magnetic Resonance 3:29–48
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Norton R. S., Mackay M. A., Borowitzka L. J. 1982; The physical state of osmoregulatory solutes in unicellular algae. A natural-abundance carbon-13 nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation study. Biochemical Journal 202:699–706
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pollard A., Wyn JONES R. G. 1979; Enzyme activities in concentrated solutions of glycine betaine and other solutes. Planta 144:291–298
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Reed R. H., Collins J. C., Russell G. 1980; The effects of salinity upon galactosylglycerol content and concentration of the marine red alga Porphyra purpurea (Roth.) C. Ag. Journal of Experimental Botany 31:1539–1554
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Reed R. H., Richardson D. L., Warr S. R. C, Stewart W. D. P. 1984; Carbohydrate accumulation and osmotic stress in cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 130:1–4
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Reichelt J. L., Baumann P. 1974; Effect of sodium chloride on growth of heterotrophic marine bacteria. Archives of Microbiology 97:329–345
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Richardson D. L., Reed R. H., Stewart W. D. P. 1983; Synechocystis PCC 6803: a euryhaline cyanobacterium. FEMS Microbiology Letters 18:99–102
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Rippka R., Deruelles J., Waterbury J. B., Herdman M., Stanier R. Y. 1979; Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 111:1–61
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Risk M., Gelber R., Knock S., Wood R. C. 1982; Osmoregulatory mechanisms of the meso- halophilic Dead Sea bacterium Ba1. In Biosaline Research: a Look to the Future pp. 539–544 San Pietro A. Edited by New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Rosenthal S. N., Fendler J. H. 197613 C NMR spectroscopy in macromolecular systems of biochemical interest. Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry 13:279–424
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Rozema J., Buizer D. A. G, Fabritus H. E. 1978; Population dynamics of Glaux maritima and ecophysiological adaptations to salinity and inundation. Oikos 30:539–548
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Simpson J. R. 1976 Water relations of the sugar- tolerant yeast, Saccharomyces rouxii. PhD thesis University of New South Wales; Australia:
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Stam W. T., Holleman H. C. 1975; The influence of different salinities on growth and morphological variability of a number of Phormidium strains (Cyanophyceae) in culture. Acta botanica neerlandica 24:379–390
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Stam W. T., Holleman H. C. 1979; Cultures of Phormidium, Plectonema, Lyngbya and Synechococ- cus (Cyanophyceae) under different conditions: their growth and morphological variability. Acta botanica neerlandica 28:45–66
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Stanier R. Y., Kunisawa R., Mandel M. 1971; Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green algae (order Chroococcales). Bacteriological Reviews 35:171–205
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Stewart W. D. P. 1964; Nitrogen fixation by Myxophyceae from marine environments. Journal of General Microbiology 36:415–422
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Storey R., Wyn JONES R. G. 1975; Betaine and choline levels in plants and their relationship to NaCl stress. Plant Science Letters 4:161–168
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Storey R., Wyn JONES R. G. 1977; Quaternary ammonium compounds in plants in relation to salt resistance. Phytochemistry 16:447–453
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Van BAALEN C. 1962; Studies on marine blue-green algae. Botanica marina 4:129–139
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Waterbury J. B., Stanier R. Y. 1978; Patterns of growth and development in pleurocapsalean cyanobacteria. Microbiological Reviews 42:2–44
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wynjones R. G. 1980; An assessmentof quaternary ammonium and related compounds as osmotic effectors in crop plants. In Basic Life Sciences 14 Genetic Engineering of Osmoregulation: Impact on Plant Productivity for Food, Chemicals and Energy, pp. 155–170 Rains D. W., Valentine R. C., Hollaender A. Edited by New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Yopp J. H., Tindall D. R., Miller D. M., Schmid W. E. 1978a; Isolation, purification and evidence for a halophilic nature of the blue-green alga Aphanothece halophytica Frémy (Chroococ- cales). Phycologia 17:172–178
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Yopp J. H., Miller D. M., Tindall D. R. 1978b; Regulation of intracellular water potential in the halophilic blue-green alga Aphanothece halophytica (Chroococcales). In Energetics and Structure of Halophilic Microorganisms pp. 619–624 Caplan S. R., Ginzburg M. Edited by Amsterdam: Elsevier/ North Holland;
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Zobell C. 1963; Domain of the marine microbiologist. In Symposium on Marine Microbiology pp. 3–24 Paleg L. G., Aspinall D. Edited by New York: Academic Press; Paleg L. G., Aspinall D. Edited by New York: Academic Press; Oppenheimer C. H., Aspinall D. Edited by Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2177
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-9-2177
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error