1887

Abstract

An autolysin-deficient mutant of Bacillus subtilis was completely tolerant to 5 h incubation with 50–100 µg cycloserine mlwhereas the wild-type was rapidly lysed and killed by 12 µg ml. Lysis also did not occur when low concentrations of -lactams were added to exponentially growing cultures of the mutant, but over 90% of the bacteria were killed within 90-120 min. Protein, lipid and peptidoglycan synthesis as well as growth were inhibited after about 60 min. At this time, but not earlier, small amounts of these three cell components appeared in culture supernatants. Earlier, at about 20-30 min, the intracellular pools of amino acids started to decline rapidly and there was a temporary apparent increase in the rate of lipid synthesis. Neither of the latter phenomena occurred with cycloserine, with which protein and lipid synthesis declined only slowly and the rate of peptidoglycan synthesis was 80% inhibited within 30 min. Only occasional cells with damaged walls were seen 30–90 min after addition of either -lactams or cycloserine to the cultures. It thus seems unlikely that wall hydrolysis or penetration by residual autolysins in the mutant are responsible for mass cell death caused by the -lactams.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-2-465
1983-02-01
2021-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/129/2/mic-129-2-465.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-2-465&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ayusawa D., Toneda Y., Yamane K., Maruo B. 1975; Pleiotropic phenomena in autolytic en- zyme(s). Content, flagellation and simultaneous hyperproduction of extracellular β-amylase, and protease, in a Bacillus subtilis mutant. Journal of Bacteriology 124:459–469
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Best G. K., Best N. H., Koral A. V. 1974; Evidence for participation of autolysins in the bactericidal action of oxacillin on Staphylococcus aureus. . Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 6:825–830
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Burdett I. D. J. 1980; Analysis of sites of autolysis in Bacillus subtilis by electron microscopy. Journal of General Microbiology 120:35–49
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chain E., Duthie E. S. 1945; Bacterial and bacteriolytic action of penicillin on Staphylococcus. . Lancet i:652
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cundliffe E. 1968; Preparation and some properties of active protoplasts of Bacillus megaterium. . Journal of General Microbiology 53:425–430
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Fein J. E., Rogers H. J. 1976; Autolytic enzyme- deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis 168. Journal of Bacteriology 127:1427–1442
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fordham W. D., Gilvarg C. 1974; Kinetics of cross-linking of peptidoglycan in Bacillus megaterium. . Journal of Biological Chemistry 249:2478–2482
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gale E. F., Taylor E. S. 1947; The assimilation of amino-acids by bacteria. 5. The action of penicillin in preventing the assimilation of glutamic acid by Staphylococcus aureus. . Journal of General Microbiology 1:314–326
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hakenbeck R., Wars S., Tomasz A. 1978; Characterisation of cell wall polymers secreted into the growth medium of lysis-defective pneumococci during treatment with penicillin and other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 13:302–311
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Holtje J. V., Tomasz A. 1975; Lipoteichoic acid. A specific inhibitor of autolysin activity in Pneumococcus. . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 721690–1694
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Horne D., Tomasz A. 1977; Tolerant response of Streptococcus sanguis to beta-lactams and other cell wall inhibitors. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11:888–896
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Horne D., Hakenbeck R., Tomasz A. 1977; Secretion of lipids induced by inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis in streptococci. Journal of Bacteriology 132:704–717
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hughes R. C. 1968; The cell wall of Bacillus licheni- formis NCTC 6346: isolation of low molecular weight fragments from the soluble mucopeptide. Biochemical Journal 106:49–59
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jarwetz E., Gunnison J. B., Speck R. S., Coleman V. R. 1951; Studies on antibiotic synergism and antagonism. The interference of chloramphenicol with the action of penicillin. Archives of Internal Medicine 87:349–359
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lopez E., Ronda-Lain C., Tapia A., Leaks S. B., Tomasz A. 1976; Suppression of the lytic and bactericidal effects of cell wall inhibitory antibiotics. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10:697–706
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Luria S. E., Burroughs J. W. 1957; Hybridization between Escherichia coli and Shigella. . Journal of Bacteriology 74:461–476
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mattingly S. J., Daneo-Moore L., Shockman G. D. 1977; Factors regulating cell wall thickening and intra-cellular iodophilic polysaccharide storage in Streptococcus mutans. . Infection and Immunity 16:967–973
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mccleod R. A., Thurman P. F., Rogers H. J. 1973; Comparative transport activity of intact cells, membrane vesicles and mesosomes of Bacillus licheniformis. . Journal of Bacteriology 113:329–340
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mcquillen K. 1960; Bacterial protoplasts. In The Bacteria 1 pp. 249–359 Edited by Gunsalus I. C., Stanier R. Y. New York & London; Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mychajlonka M., Mcdowell T. D., Shockman G. D. 1980; Inhibition of peptidoglycan, ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis in tolerant strains of Streptococcus mutans. . Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 17:572–582
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Pooley H. M. 1976; Turnover and spreading of old wall during surface growth of Bacillus subtilis. . Journal of Bacteriology 125:1127–1138
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Prestidge L. S., Pardee A. E. 1957; Induction of bacterial lysis by penicillin. Journal of Bacteriology 74:48–59
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Reynolds P. E. 1971; Peptidoglycan synthesis in bacilli. II. Characteristics of protoplast membrane preparations. Biochimica et biophysica acta 237:255–272
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rogers H. J. 1962 In Resistance of Bacteria to the Penicillins Ciba Foundation Study Group, 13 Edited by de Reuck A. V. S., Cameron M. P. London: Churchill;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rogers H. J. 1964; The mode of action of some antibacterial substances. In Experimental Chemotherapy II pp. 37–77 Edited by Schnitzer R. J., Hawking F. New York & London; Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rogers H. J. 1967; Killing of staphylococci by penicillins. Nature, London 213:31–33
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rogers H. J., Forsberg C. W. 1971; Role of autolysins in the killing of bacteria by some bactericidal antibiotics. Journal of Bacteriology 108:1235–1243
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rogers H. J., Thurman P. F., Taylor C., Reeve J. N. 1974; Mucopeptide synthesis by rod mutants of Bacillus subtilis. . Journal of General Microbiology 85:335–350
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rosenthal R. S., Jungkind D., Daneo-Moore L., Shockman G. D. 1975; Evidence for the synthesis of soluble peptidoglycan fragments by protoplasts of Streptococcus faecalis. . Journal of Bacteriology 124:398–409
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sabath L. D., Laverdiere M., Wheeler N., Blazevic D., Wilkinson B. J. 1977; A new type of penicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus. . Lancet i:443–447
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sargent M. G. 1973; Synchronous cultures of Bacillus subtilis obtained by filtration with glass fibre filters. Journal of Bacteriology 116:736–740
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Shockman G. D. 1963; Amino acid deprivation and bacterial cell wall synthesis. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 26:182–195
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Shockman G. D., Lampen J. O. 1962; Inhibition by antibiotics of the growth of bacterial and yeast protoplasts. Journal of Bacteriology 84:508–512
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shockman G. D., Daneo-Moore L., Cornett J. B., Mychajlonka M. 1979; Does penicillin kill bacteria?. Reviews of Infectious Disease 1:787–796
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Shockman G. D., Daneo-Moore L., Mcdowell T. D., Wong W. 1981; Function and structure of the cell wall - its importance in the life and death of bacteria. In β-Lactam Antibiotics. Mode of Action, New Developments and Future Prospects pp. 31–65 Edited by Salton M., Shockman G. D. New York & London; Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Suginaka H., Shimatawa M., Ogawa M., Kotami S. 1978; Prevention of penicillin-induced lysis of Staphylococcus by cellular lipoteichoic acid. Journal of Antibiotics 32:73–77
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sund M.-L., Linder L. 1976; Autolysis in strains of viridans streptococci. Journal of General Microbiology 96:87–94
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tomasz A. 1974; The role of autolysins in cell death. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 235:439–449
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tomasz A. 1979; The mechanism of the irreversible antimicrobial effects of penicillins. Annual Review of Microbiology 33:113–137
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tomasz A., Waks S. 1975; Enzyme replacement in a bacterium: phenotypic correction by the experimental introduction of the wild type enzyme into a live enzyme defective mutant pneumococcus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 65:1311–1319
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tomasz A., Albino A., Zanati E. 1970; Multiple antibiotic resistance in a bacterium with suppressed autolytic system. Nature, London 211:138–140
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tsien H. C., Shockman G. D., Higgins M. L. 1978; Structural arrangement of polymers within the wall of Streptococcus faecalis. . Journal of Bacteriology 133:372–386
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tynecka Z., Ward J. B. 1975; Peptidoglycan synthesis in Bacillus licheniformis. The inhibition of cross-linking by benzyl penicillin and cephaloridine in vivo accompanied by the formation of soluble peptidoglycan. Biochemical Journal 146:253–267
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Weidel W., Pelzer H. 1964; Bag-shaped macromolecules - a new outlook on bacterial cell walls. Advances in Enzymology 26:193–232
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-2-465
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-2-465
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error