1887

Abstract

The obligate chemolithotroph can grow with NH NO or urea as source of nitrogen. Gradual and rapid mechanisms were detected for regulating both the activity and the rate of synthesis of enzymes required for the metabolism of these nitrogen compounds. Glutamine synthetase (GS) in combination with glutamate synthase (GOGAT) was active under most growth conditions. Alanine dehydrogenase appears to be the major pathway of NH assimilation during energy-limited growth in the presence of excess NH . GS was regulated in this organism by repression/derepression of enzyme synthesis, by inhibition by low molecular weight compounds, and also by adenylylation and deadenylylation. GS was deadenylylated during CO- and N-limited growth and also during energy-limited growth when NO or urea were supplied as the nitrogen source. GS was adenylylated during energy-limited growth in the presence of 7·7 m-NH . The activity of GS increased with decreasing dilution rate during NH -limited growth, whereas the activity of GOGAT remained almost constant. The ability of whole cells to reduce NO was derepressed during N-limited growth. During NH -limited growth 24 % of total carbon fixed was excreted as 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, succinate, -hydroxyphenylacetate and ethylmalonate.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-1-39
1982-01-01
2021-08-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/128/1/mic-128-1-39.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-1-39&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bender R. A., Janssen K. A., Rennick A. O., Blumenberg M., Foor I., Magasanik B. 1977; Biochemical parameters of glutamine synthetase from Klebsiella aerogenes. Journal of Bacteriology 129:1001–1009
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beudeker R. F., Cannon G. C., Kuenen J. G., Shively J. M. 1980; Relations between d- ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, carboxy- somes and CO2-fixing capacity in the obligate chemolithotroph Thiobacillus neapolitanus, grown under different limitations in the chemostat. Archives of Microbiology 124:185–191
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beudeker R. F., Kuenen J. G., Codd G. A. 1981; Glycollate metabolism in the obligate chemolithotroph Thiobacillus neapolitanus grown in continuous culture. Journal of General Microbiology 126:337–346
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Biggins D. R., Postgate J. R. 1969; Nitrogen fixation by cultures and cell free extracts of Mycobacterium flavum 301. Journal of General Microbiology 56:181–193
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dalton H. 1979; Utilization of inorganic nitrogen by microbial cells. In Microbial Biochemistry. International Review of Biochemistry 21 pp. 227–266 Quayle J. R. Edited by Baltimore: University Park Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Duran M. 1974 A contribution to the study of organic aciduria. Doctoral thesis University of Utrecht, The Netherlands:
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Herbert R. A., Siefert E., Pfennig N. 1978; Nitrogen assimilation in Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. . Archives of Microbiology 119:1–5
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Janssen D. B., Op Den Camp H. J. M., Leenen P. J. M., Van Der Drift C. 1980; The enzymes of the ammonia assimilation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. . Archives of Microbiology 124:197–203
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jaworski E. G. 1971; Nitrate reductase assay in intact plant tissues. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 43:1274–1279
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Johansson B. C., Gest H. 1977; Adenylylation/deadenylylation control of the glutamine synthetase of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. . European Journal of Biochemistry 81:365–371
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kleinschmidt J. A., Kleiner D. 1978; The glutamine synthetase from Azotobacter vinelandii: purification, characterization, regulation and localization. European Journal of Biochemistry 89:51–60
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kuenen J. G., Veldkamp H. 1973; Effects of organic compounds on growth of chemostat cultures of Thiomicrospira pelophila, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus. . Archiv für Mikro- biologie 94:173–190
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lea P. J., Miflin B. J. 1975; Glutamate synthase in blue-green algae. Biochemical Society Transactions 3:381–383
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ludwig R. A. 1978; Control of ammonium assimilation in Rhizobium 32 HI. Journal of Bacteriology 135:114–123
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mackintosh M. E. 1978; Nitrogen fixation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. . Journal of General Microbiology 105:215–218
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Matin A. 1978; Organic nutrition of chemo- lithotrophic bacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology 32:433–468
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Meiberg J. B. M. 1979 Metabolism of methylated amines in Hyphomicrobium spp. Doctoral Thesis University of Groningen, The Netherlands.:
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Pan P., Umbreit W. W. 1972; Growth of obligate autotrophic bacteria on glucose in a continuous flow-through apparatus. Journal of Bacteriology 109:1149–1155
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rowell P., Stewart W. D. P. 1976; Alanine dehydrogenase of the N2-fixing blue-green alga,Anabaena cylindrica. . Archives of Microbiology 107:115–124
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Rowell P., Sampaio M.J.A.M., Ladha J. K., Stewart W. D. P. 1979; Alteration of cyano-bacterial glutamine synthetase activity in vivo in response to light and NH+ 4. Archives of Microbiology 120:195–200
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Schmidt E. 1974; Glutamate dehydrogenase. UV- assay. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis 2, 2nd edn.. pp. 650–656 Bergmeyer H. U. Edited by New York: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Shapiro B. M., Stadtman E. R. 1970; Glutamine synthetase (Escherichia coli). . Methods in Enzymology 17A:910–922
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Smith A. J., Hoare D. S. 1977; Specialist photographs, lithotrophs and methylotrophs: a unity among a diversity of prokaryotes? . Bacteriological Reviews 41:419–448
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Stacey G., Van Baalen C., Tabita F. R. 1979; Nitrogen and ammonia assimilation in the cyano-bacteria: regulation of glutamine synthetase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 194:457–467
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Strandburg G. W., Wilson P. W. 1968; Formation of the nitrogen fixing enzyme system in Azotobacter vinelandii. . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 14:25–31
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tyler B. 1978; Regulation of the assimilation of nitrogen compounds. Annual Review of Bio-chemistry 47:1127–1162
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Tsuchiya H. M., Trivedi N. C., Schuler M. L. 1974; Microbial mutualism in ore leaching. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 16:991–995
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Vishniac W., Santer M. 1957; The thiobacilli. Bacteriological Reviews 21195–213
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Windass J. D., Worsey M. J., Pioli E. M., Pioli D., Barth T. D., Atherton K. l., Dart E. C., Byrom D., Powell K., Senior P. J. 1980; Improved conversion of methanol to single-cell protein by Methylophilus methylotrophus. . Nature; London: 287396–401
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-1-39
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-1-39
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error