1887

Abstract

Gradients of nutrients are extremely common in nature, and this paper decribes changes in the physiology of grown in the gradostat, a series of five linked vessels with opposing gradients of glucose and of oxygen plus nitrate. Most growth occurred at the aerobic and anaerobic ends of the system. High rates of respiration, high energy charge and high activities of various oxidative enzymes were seen in the two most aerobic vessels; however, oxygen provision was presumably poor, because nitrate reductase activities were also high in this region. Vessels 3 and 4 showed the lowest values for respiration rate, enzyme activity and energy charge, and cells here were both nutrient starved and possibly inhibited by nitrite. Vessel 5 was highly anaerobic, resulting in the presence of hydrogenase activity. It was concluded that cells found in different regions of the gradostat had undergone biochemical differentiation in spatial gradients of electron donors and acceptors.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-127-2-269
1981-12-01
2022-01-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/127/2/mic-127-2-269.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-127-2-269&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. American Public Health Association 1971 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 13th edn. pp. 461–464
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Atkinson D.E., Walton H.W. 1967; Adenosine triphosphate conversion in metabolic regulation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193:265–275
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chapman A.G., Fall L., Atkinson D.E. 1971; Adenylate energy charge in E. coli during growth and starvation. Journal of Bacteriology 108:1072–1086
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cole J.A., Wimpenny J.W.T. 1966; The inter-relationships of low redox potential cyto-chrome c552 and hydrogenase in facultative bacteria. Biochimica et biophysica acta 128:419–425
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cooper D.G., Copeland B.J. 1973; Responses of a continuous series of estuarine microecosystems to point-source input variations. Ecological Monographs 43:213–236
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Edwards C.V., Statham M., Lloyd D. 1975; The preparation of large-scale synchronous cultures of the trypanosomatid, Crithidia fasciculata, by cell size selection: changes in respiration and adenylate charge through the cell-cycle. Journal of General Microbiology 88:141–152
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gray C.T., Wimpenny J.W.T., Hughes D.E., Ranlett M.R. 1963; A soluble c type cytochrome from anaerobically grown Escherichia coli and various Enterobacteriaceae. Biochimica et biophysica acta 67:157–160
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gray C.T., Wimpenny J.W.T., Hughes D.E., Mossman M.R. 1967; Regulation of metabolism in facultative bacteria. I. Structural and functional changes in Escherichia coli associated with shift between the aerobic and anaerobic states. Biochimica et biophysica acta 117:22–32
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Herbert D., Phipps P.J., Strange R.E. 1971; Chemical analysis of microbial cells. Methods in Microbiology 5B:209–344
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hirsch C.A., Rasminski M., Davis B.D., Lin E.C.C. 1963; A fumaratereductase in Escherichia coli distinct from succinate dehydrogenase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 238:3770–3774
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Holdeman L.V., Cato E.P., Moore W.E.C. 1972 V.P.I. Anaerobe Laboratory Handbook. Blacksburg, Virginia:: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hughes D.E. 1951; A press for disrupting bacteria and other micro-organisms. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 32:97–109
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lloyd D., Brookman J.G.S. 1967; An oxygen electrode reaction vessel. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9:271–272
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lovitt R.W., Wimpenny J.W.T. 1979; The gradostat: a tool for investigating microbial growth and interactions in solute gradients. Society for General Microbiology Quarterly 6:80
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lovm R.W., Wimpenny J.W.T. 1981; The gradostat: a bidirectional compound chemostat and its application in microbiological research. Journal of General Microbiology 127:261–268
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mackereth F.S.M., Heron J., Talling J.F. 1978; Water Analysis. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication No. 36.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Pichinoty F. 1962; Inhibition par l’oxygène de la biosynthèse et de l’activité de l’hydrogènase et l’hydrogènlyase chez les bactéries anaérobies facultatives. Biochimica et biophysica acta 64:111–124
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Postgate J.R. 1969; Viable counts and viability. Methods in Microbiology 1:611–628
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Raabo E., Terkildsen T.C. 1960; On the enzymatic determination of blood glucose. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 12:402–407
    [Google Scholar]
  20. San Pietro A. 1955; Assay and properties of hydrogenase. Methods in Enzymology 2:861–870
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sapshead L., Wimpenny J.W.T. 1972; The influence of oxygen and nitrate on the formation of cytochrome pigments of aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains of Micrococcus denitrificans. Biochimica et biophysica acta 267:388–397
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Wimpenny J.W.T. 1969; Oxygen and carbon dioxide as regulators of microbial growth and metabolism. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology 19:161–197
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wimpenny J.W.T., Warmsley A.M.H. 1968; The effect of nitrate on Krebs cycle enzymes in various bacteria. Biochimica et biophysica acta 156:297–303
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-127-2-269
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-127-2-269
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error