1887

Abstract

The composition of the cell wall of bacterium NCTC 9742, variously known as and considered by some to be a species of , has been studied. Walls isolated from cells grown in nutrient broth consisted predominantly of peptidoglycan and a phosphorylated polymer containing -mannitol, glycerol, pyruvic acid, -glucose and -galactosamine. This phosphorus-rich polymer, which was slowly released on treatment of the walls with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid, is considered to be a new type of teichoic acid. Quantitative analysis and the results of preliminary degradative studies indicated that the main backbone was a poly(mannitol phosphate) chain to which -glucopyranosyl substituents and pyruvic acid residues (acetal-linked) were attached. It is suggested that the minor components, glycerophosphate and galactosamine, could form a linkage unit for the covalent attachment of the poly(mannitol phosphate) chain to peptidoglycan. In the walls of cells grown on nutrient agar, it appeared that the phosphorus-rich polymer was partly replaced by another polymer containing galactose and an unidentified component which reacted like a 2-keto-3-deoxyaldonic acid in the periodate/thiobarbituric acid test. The taxonomic implications of the cell-wall composition are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-118-2-343
1980-06-01
2021-08-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/118/2/mic-118-2-343.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-118-2-343&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams G.A. 1967; Extraction of lipopoly-saccharides from Gram-negative bacteria with dimethyl sulfoxide. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 45:422–426
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen R.J.L. 1940; The estimation of phosphorus. Biochemical Journal 34:858–865
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson J.C., Arcmbald A.R., Baddiley J., Curtis M.J., Davey N.B. 1969; The action of dilute aqueous NN-dimethylhydrazine on bacterial cell walls. Biochemical Journal 113:183–189
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Archibald A.R. 1974; The structure, biosynthesis and function of teichoic acid. Advances in Microbial Physiology 11:53–95
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baddiley J., Buchanan J.G., Carss B., Mathias A.P., Sanderson A.R. 1956; The isolation of cytidine diphosphate glycerol, cytidine diphosphate ribitol and mannitol 1-phosphate from Lactobacillus arabinosus . Biochemical Journal 64:599–603
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bartlett G.R. 1959; Phosphorus assay in column chromatography. Journal of Biological Chemistry 234:466–468
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bebault G.M., Choy Y.M., Dutton G.G.S., Funnell N., Stephen A.M., Yang M.T. 1973; Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of Klebsiella capsular polysaccharides. Journal of Bacteriology 113:1345–1347
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bitter T., Muir H.M. 1962; A modified uronic acid carbazole reaction. Analytical Biochemistry 4:330–334
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Coley J., Duckworth M., Baddiley J. 1975; Extraction and purification of lipoteichoic acids from Gram-positive bacteria. Carbohydrate Research 40:41–52
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Coley J., Tarelli E., Archibald A.R., Baddiley J. 1978; The linkage between teichoic acid and peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls. FEBS Letters 88:1–9
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Colwell R.R., Citarella R.V., Ryman I., Chapman G.B. 1969; Properties of Pseudomonas iodinum . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 15:851–857
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cree T.C., Hutson S.M., Harper A.E. 1979; Gas-liquid chromatography of a-keto acids: quantification of the branched-chain α-keto acids from physiological sources. Analytical Biochemistry 92:156–163
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Davis J.G. 1939; Chromobacterium iodinum(n.sp.). Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasiten-kunde, Infektionskrankheiten and Hygiene (Abtei- lung II) 100:273–276
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Deley J., Park I.W., Tijtgat R., Van Ermegem J. 1966; DNA homology and taxonomy of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas . Journal of General Microbiology 42:43–56
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Diaz-Mauriño T., Perkins H.R. 1974; The presence of acidic polysaccharides and muramic acid phosphate in the walls of Corynebacterium poinsettiae and Corynebacterium betae . Journal of General Microbiology 80:533–539
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Dubois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A., Smith F. 1956; Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28:350–356
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Duckworth M. 1977; Teichoic acids. In Surface Carbohydrates of the Prokaryotic Cell pp Sutherland I. W. Edited by London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dutton G.G.S., Yang M.-T. 1973; The structure of the capsular polysaccharide of Klebsiella K-type 5. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 51:1826–1832
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Duxbury T., Gray T.R.G., Sharples G.P. 1977; Structure and chemistry of walls of rods, cocci and cystites of Arthrobacter globiformis . Journal of General Microbiology 103:91–99
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ellwood D.C., Tempest D.W. 1972; Effects of environment on bacterial wall content and composition. Advances in Microbial Physiology 7:83–117
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fiedler F., Schleifer K.H., Cziharz B., Inter-Schick E., Kandler O. 1970; Murein types in Arthrobacter, brevibacteria, corynebacteria and microbacteria. Publications de la Faculté des sciences de l’Université J.E Purkyne . Brno 47:111–122
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fletcher H.G., Diehl H.W. 1952; The preparation of 1,5-anhydro-d-mannitol (styraci- tol) from d-mannitol. Journal of the American Chemical Society 74:3175–3176
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Foster A.B., Overend W.G. 1951; Some derivatives of 3:6-anhydromannitol. Journal of the Chemical Society680–684
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gerber N.N. 1973; Microbial phenazines. In CRC Handbook of Microbiology III pp 329–332 Laskin A. 1., Leche- valier H. A. Edited by Cleveland, Ohio: CRC Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gilman J.P. 1953; Studies on certain species of bacteria assigned to the genus Chromobacterium . Journal of Bacteriology 65:48–52
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hardy F.E. 1963; The identification of carbohydrates giving derivatives of malonaldehyde on oxidation with sodium periodate. Journal of the Chemical Society5881–5885
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Herbert R.B., Holliman F.G., Ibberson P.N. 1972; Incorporation of 6-hydroxyphena-zine-1-carboxylic acid into iodinin. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications355–356
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Keddie R.M., Cure G.L. 1978; Cell wall composition of coryneform bacteria. In Coryne- form Bacteria pp 47–83 Bousfield I. J., Callely A. G. Edited by London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kosakai M., Yosizawa Z. 1975; A rapid method for separation and identification of several hexuronic acids and hexuronic acid-containing oligosaccharides. Analytical Biochemistry 69:415–419
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lindberg B., Lindh F., Lönngren J., Nim-Mich W. 1979; Structural studies of the capsular polysaccharide of Klebsiella type 33. Carbohydrate Research 70:135–144
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mayer H., Westphal O. 1968; Elektrophore- tische Trennungen von Hexosamin- und Hexuron- saurederivaten als Molybdatkomplexe. Journal of Chromatography 33:514–525
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Osborn M.J. 1963; Studies on the Gram-negative cell wall. I. Evidence for the role of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate in the lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella typhimurium . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 50:499–506
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schleifer K.H., Kandler O. 1972; Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriological Reviews 36:407–477
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sempere J.M., Gancedo C., Asensio C. 1965; Determination of galactosamine and N-acetyl-galactosamine in the presence of other hexos-amines with galactose oxidase. Analytical Biochemistry 12:509–515
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sneath P.H.A. 1960; A study of the bacterial genus Chromobacterium . Iowa State Journal of Science 34:243–500
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sneath P.H.A. 1974; Genus Chromobacterium Bergonzini. In Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. pp 354–357 Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Edited by Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sturgeon R.J. 1978; An analytical method for the enzymic estimation of mannitol. In Abstracts of the IXth International Symposium on Carbohydrate Chemistry pp 355–356 London:: lUPAC;
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tobie W.C. 1945; A proposed biochemical basis for the genus Pseudomonas . Journal of Bacteriology 49:459–462
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Wilkinson S.G. 1967; The sensitivity of pseudomonads to ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid. Journal of General Microbiology 47:67–76
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wilkinson S. G. 1968; Studies on the cell walls of Pseudomonas species resistant to ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid. Journal of General Microbiology 54:195–213
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Young D.A.B. 1964; Use of butyl acetate as a solvent for the extraction of trichloroacetic acid. Biochimica et biophysica acta 90:178–179
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-118-2-343
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-118-2-343
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error