1887

Abstract

Arginine synthesis and urea formation via the ornithine cycle occurred in sporophore cap and stipe of Although urease was found at high activity in mycelium and stipe, it was not detectable in extracts of cap tissue, but arginine biosynthesis was specifically amplified during development of the cap as judged from metabolism of isotopically labelled substrates and increased enzyme activities. Four enzymes, NADP-linked glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ornithine acetyltransferase and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase, were considerably derepressed in developing caps while remaining low (or declining) in activity in the stipes supporting those caps. Co-ordinate regulation of these enzymes could also be demonstrated in vegetative mycelium subjected to particular synthetic growth media. Arginine, alanine and glutamate accumulated in the cap as a result of amplified arginine biosynthesis. A greater than twofold increase in the quantity of urea in the cap was also evident during development, although the concentration of urea remained essentially unchanged. A causal relationship between urea accumulation and water influx into developing cap tissues is suggested. The inflation of the gill hymenium cells accounts for the ‘umbrella-like’ cap expansion that characterizes spp.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-107-2-343
1978-08-01
2021-10-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/107/2/mic-107-2-343.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-107-2-343&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abdumalikov A. K., Nikolaev A. Y. 1967; Separation and purification of glutaminase, asparaginase and isoglutamine desamidase from yeast. Biokhimiia 32:713–719
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Al-Gharawi A., Moore D. 1974; Effects of d-glutamate on mycelial growth and glutamate dehydrogenase enzymes of Coprinus lagopus. Journal of General Microbiology 85:274–282
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Al-Gharawi A., Moore D. 1977; Factors affecting the amount and the activity of the glutamate dehydrogenases of Coprinus cinereus. Biochimica et biophysica acta 496:95–102
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Archibald R. M. 1944; Determination of citrul-line and allantoin and demonstration of citrulline in blood plasma. Journal of Biological Chemistry 156:121–142
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brown C. M., Johnson B. 1970; Influence of the concentration of glucose and galactose on the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous culture. Journal of General Microbiology 64:279–287
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown C. M., Burn V. J., Johnson B. 1973; Presence of glutamate synthase in fission yeasts and its possible role in ammonia assimilation. Nature New Biology 246:115–116
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Buller A. H. R. 1931 Researches on Fungi 4 London: Longman, Green & Co;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Burn V. J., Turner P. R., Brown C. M. 1974; Aspects of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in yeasts. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 40:93–102
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Carsiotis M., Jones R. F., Lacy A. M., Cleary T. J., Fankhauser D. B. 1970; Histidine-mediated control of tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes in Neurospora crassa. Journal of Bacteriology 104:98–106
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chinard F. P. 1952; Photometric estimation of proline and ornithine. Journal of Biological Chemistry 199:91–95
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Craig G. D., Gull K., Wood D. A. 1977; Stipe elongation in Agaricus bisporus. Journal of General Microbiology 102:337–347
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Darbyshire J. 1974 Developmental studies on Coprinus lagopus (sensu Buller). Ph.D. thesis Manchester University;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dubois E., Grenson M., Wiame J. M. 1973; Release of the ‘ammonia effect’ on three catabolic enzymes by NADP-specific glutamate dehydro-genaseless mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 50:967–972
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fawole M. O., Casselton P. J. 1972; Observations on the regulation of glutamate dehydro-genase activity in Coprinus lagopus. Journal of Experimental Botany 23:530–551
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gooday G. W. 1974; Control of development of excised fruit bodies and stipes of Coprinus cinereus. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 62:391–399
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Guerzoni M. E. 1972; Physiological and enzymatic aspects of histidine-mediated control of the tryptophan pathway. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 86:57–68
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Levenberg B. 1962; Role of l-glutamine as donor of carbamyl nitrogen for the enzymatic synthesis of citrulline in Agaricus bisporus. Journal of Biological Chemistry 237:2590–2598
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lowry O. H., Rosebrough N. J., Farr A. L., Randall R. J. 1951; Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193:265–275
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Magasanik B., Prival M. J., Brenchley J. E., Tyler B. M., DeLeo A. B., Streicher S. L., Bender R. A., Paris C. G. 1974; Glutamine synthetase as a regulator of enzyme synthesis. Current Topics in Cellular Regulation 8:119–138
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Moore D., Ewaze J. O. 1976; Activities of some enzymes involved in metabolism of carbohydrate during sporophore development in Coprinus cinereus. Journal of General Microbiology 97:313–322
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nelson N. 1944; A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. Journal of Biological Chemistry 153:375–380
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Orebamjo T. O., Stewart G. R. 1974; Some characteristics of nitrate reductase induction in Lemna minor L. Planta 117:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Osborne D. J. 1962; Effect of kinetin on protein and nucleic acid metabolism of Xanthium leaves during senescence. Plant Physiology 37:595–602
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Pateman J. A., Kinghorn J. R., Dunn E., Forbes E. 1973; Ammonium regulation in Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of Bacteriology 114:943–950
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ravel J. M., Norton S. J., Humphreys J. S., Shive W. 1962; Asparagine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus arabinosus and its control by asparagine through enzyme inhibition and repression. Journal of Biological Chemistry 237:2845–2849
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Roon R. J., Levenberg B. 1968; An ATP-dependent, avidin-sensitive enzymatic cleavage of urea in yeast and green algae. Journal of Biological Chemistry 243:5213–5215
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Roon R. J., Levenberg B. 1972; Urea amido-lyase. I. Properties of the enzyme from Candida utilis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 247:4107–4113
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Schimke R. T. 1970; Arginine deiminase (Myco-plasma). Methods in Enzymology 17A:310–313
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Staub M., Denes G. 1966; Mechanism of arginine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas rein-hardii. I. Purification and properties of ornithine acetyltransferase. Biochimica et biophysica acta 128:82–91
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Stewart G. R., Moore D. 1974; The activities of glutamate dehydrogenases during mycelial growth and sporophore development in Coprinus lagopus (sensu Lewis). Journal of General Microbiology 83:73–81
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tempest D. W., Meers J. L., Brown C. M. 1973; Glutamate synthase (GOGAT); a key enzyme in the assimilation of ammonia by prokaryotic organisms. In The Enzymes of Glutamine Metabolism167–182 Prusiner S., Stadtman E. R. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Turner E. M. 1977; Development of excised sporocarps of Agaricus bisporus and its control by CO2. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 69:183–186
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Vogel H. J., Bonner D. M. 1956; Acetyl-ornithinase of Escherichia coli: partial purification and some properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry 218:97–106
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Vogel R. H., Kopac M. J. 1960; Some properties of ornithine transaminase from Neuro-spora. Biochimica et biophysica acta 37:539–540
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Weiss R. L. 1973; Intracellular localization of enzymes of arginine metabolism in Neurospora. Journal of Biological Chemistry 248:5403–5408
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Weiss R. L. 1976; Compartmentation and control of arginine metabolism in Neurospora. Journal of Bacteriology 126:1173–1179
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Woolfolk C. A., Shapiro B., Stadtman E. R. 1966; Regulation of glutamine synthetase. I. Purification and properties of glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli. Archives of Biochemistry and BLphysics 116:117–192
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Yellin T. O., Wriston J. C. 1966; Purification and properties of guinea pig serum asparaginase. Biochemistry 5:1605–1612
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-107-2-343
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-107-2-343
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error