1887

Abstract

Summary: Cultures of 16 coryneform bacteria were grown to late-exponential stage in nutrient media, washed, and starved in 30 mm-potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, with no external energy or carbon source. After 4 weeks starvation, 20 to 98% of each culture was still viable; after 8 weeks, 5 to 70% of each culture was still viable. Little change in cell shape or size was detected in and when studied by electron microscopy for up to 56 d, although there was a gradual disappearance of intracellular material. No resting structures were discernible. All organisms showed an immediate decrease in endogenous respiration to less than 1% of that observed during growth. A low basal level of endogenous metabolism equivalent to 0.01 to 0.03% of cellular carbon oxidized to CO h was maintained for 56 d. Carbohydrate, intracellular pools, protein, ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid were utilized at varying rates by different organisms during this period. All species were effective in maintaining 20 to 70% of their Mg content during a 28 d starvation period in the absence of any external Mg. It would appear that the soil coryneform bacteria possess similar survival characteristics in laboratory studies which could explain, in part, their ecological success in natural environments.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-105-2-323
1978-04-01
2021-05-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/105/2/mic-105-2-323.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-105-2-323&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Boylen C. W., Ensign J. C. 1970a; Longterm starvation survival of rod and spherical stage cells of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes. Journal of Bacteriology 103:569–577 (See Journal of Bacteriology 104, 1033.)
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boylen C. W., Ensign J. C. 1970b; Intracellular substrates for endogenous metabolism during long-term starvation of rod and spherical cells of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes. Journal of Bacteriology 103:578–587
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boylen C. W., Pate J. L. 1973; Fine structure of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during long term starvation of rod and spherical stage cells. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 19:1–5
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bradley S. G. 1973; Relationships among mycobacteria and nocardiae based upon deoxyribonucleic acid reassociation. Journal of Bacteriology 113:645–651
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Burleigh I. G., Dawes E. A. 1967; Studies on the endogenous metabolism and senescence of starved Sarcina lutea. Biochemical Journal 102:236–250
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Burton K. 1956; A study of the conditions and mechanism of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemical Journal 62:315–323
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Clark F. E. 1967; Bacteria in soil. In Soil Biology pp. 15–49 Edited by Burges A., Raw F. New York and London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Clifton C. E. 1967; Ageing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of Bacteriology 94:2077–2078
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Conn H. J. 1948; The most abundant groups of bacteria in soil. Bacteriological Reviews 12:257–273
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Conn H. J., Dimmick I. 1947; Soil bacteria similar in morphology to Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium. Journal of Bacteriology 54:291–303
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cummins C. S. 1962; Chemical composition and antigenic structure of cell walls of Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Actinomyces, and Arthrobacter. Journal of General Microbiology 28:35–50
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dawes E. A. 1976; Endogenous metabolism and the survival of starved prokaryotes. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology 26:19–53
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dawes E. A., Ribbons D. W. 1965; Studies on the endogenous metabolism of Escherichia coli. Biochemical Journal 95:332–343
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Druilhet R. E., Sober JM. 1976; Starvation survival of Salmonella enteritidis. Journal of Bacteriology 125:119–124
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Duxbury T., Gray T. R. G., Sharples G. P. 1977; Structure and chemistry of walls of rods, cocci and cystites of Arthrobacter globiformis. Journal of General Microbiology 103:91–99
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fiedler F., Schleifer K., Kandler O. 1973; Amino acid sequence of the threonine-containing mureins of coryneform bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 113:8–17
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ghuysen J. M., Tipper D. J., Strominger J. L. 1966; Enzymes that degrade bacterial cell walls. Methods in Enzymology 8:685–699
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gottlieb D. 1974; Actinomycetales. In Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. pp. 657–659 Edited by Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gounot A. M. 1967; Rôle biologique des Arthrobacter dans les limons souterrains. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur 113:923–945
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gray T. R. G. 1976; Survival of vegetative microbes in soil. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology 26:327–364
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Van Houte J., Jansen J. M. 1970; Role of glycogen in survival of Streptococcus mitis. Journal of Bacteriology 101:1083–1085
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jensen H. L. 1966; Some introductory remarks on the coryneform bacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 29:13–16
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jones L. A., Bradley S. G. 1974; Relationships among streptomycetes, nocardiae, mycobacteria, and other actinomycetes. Mycologia 56:505–513
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kellenberger E., Ryter A., Séchaud J. 1958; Electron microscope study of DNA-containing plasms. II. Vegetative and mature phage DNA as compared with normal bacterial nucleoids in different physiological states. Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology 4:671–676
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kennell D., Kotoulas A. 1967; Magnesium starvation of Aerobacter aerogenes. I. Changes in nucleic acid composition. Journal of Bacteriology 93:334–344
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kerr S. E., Seraidarian K. 1945; The separation of purine nucleosides from free purines and the determination of the purines and ribose in these fractions. Journal of Biological Chemistry 159:211–225
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Krulwich T. A., Ensign J. C. 1969; Alteration of glucose metabolism of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes by compounds which induce sphere to rod morphogenesis. Journal of Bacteriology 97:526–534
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Krulwich T. A., Pate J. L. 1971; Ultrastructural explanation for snapping postfission movements in Arthrobacter crystallopoietes. Journal of Bacteriology 105:408–412
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Labeda D. P., Liu K.-C., Casida L. E.Jr 1976; Colonization of soil by Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas under varying conditions of water and nutrient availability as studied by plate counts and transmission electron microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 31:551–561
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lowe W. E., Gray T. R. G. 1972; Ecological studies on coccoid bacteria in a pine forest soil. I. Classification. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 4:459–467
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lowry O. H., Roberts N. R., Leiner K. Y., Wu M. L., Farr A. L. 1954; The quantitative histochemistry of brain. I. Chemical methods. Journal of Biological Chemistry 207:1–17
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Luft J. H. 1961; Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods. Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology 9:409–414
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Luscombe B. M., Gray T. R. G. 1974; Characteristics of Arthrobacter grown in continuous culture. Journal of General Microbiology 82:213–222
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mulder E. G., Antheunisse J. 1963; Morphologic, physiologie et ecologie des Arthrobacter. Annales de VInstitut Pasteur 105:46–74
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Reynolds E. S. 1963; The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology 17:208–212
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ridell M., Norlin M. 1973; Serological study of nocardia by using mycobacterial precipitation reference systems. Journal of Bacteriology 113:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Robertson J. G., Batt R. D. 1973; Survival of Nocardia corallina and degradation of constituents during starvation. Journal of General Microbiology 78:109–117
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Rogosa M., Cummins C. S., Lelliott R. A., Keddie R. M. 1974; Coryneform group of bacteria. In Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. pp. 599–602 Edited by Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Sierra G., Gibbons N. E. 1962; Role and oxidation pathway of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid in Micrococcus halodenitrificans. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 8:255–269
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Spiro R. G. 1966; Analysis of sugars found in glycoproteins. Methods in Enzymology 8:3–26
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Stevenson I. L. 1968; The fine structure of Arthrobacter pascens and the development of mesosomes during the growth cycle. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 14:1029–1034
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Strange R. E., Dark F. A., Ness A. G. 1961; The survival of stationary phase Aerobacter aerogenes stored in aqueous suspension. Journal of General Microbiology 25:61–76
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Strange R. E., Wade H. E., Ness A. G. 1963; The catabolism of proteins and nucleic acids in starved Aerobacter aerogenes. Biochemical Journal 86:197–203
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Thomas T. D., Batt R. D. 1968; Survival of Streptococcus lactis in starvation conditions. Journal of General Microbiology 50:367–382
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Thomas T. D., Batt R. D. 1969; Degradation of cell constituents by starved Streptococcus lactis in relation to survival. Journal of General Microbiology 58:347–362
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wiland E. 1969; The characteristics of the population of soil diphtheroids. Acta microbiologica polonica 18:15–20
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Willetts N. S. 1967; Intracellular protein breakdown in non-growing cells of Escherichia coli. Biochemical Journal 103:453–461
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Winogradsky S. 1925; ètudes sur la microbiologie du sol. I. Sur la methode. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur 39:299–354
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Zevenhuizen L.P.T.M. 1966; Formation and function of the glycogen-like polysaccharide of Arthrobacter. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 32:356–372
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-105-2-323
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-105-2-323
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error