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Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a major global threat to public health. Understanding the population dynamics of AR is critical to restrain and control this issue. However, no study has provided a global picture of the whole resistome of , a very important nosocomial pathogen. Here we analyse 1450+ genomes (covering >40 countries and >4 decades) to infer the global population dynamics of the resistome of this species. We show that gene flow and horizontal transfer have driven the dissemination of AR genes in . We found considerable variation in AR gene content across lineages. Although the individual AR gene histories have been affected by recombination, the AR gene content has been shaped by the phylogeny. Furthermore, many AR genes have been transferred to other well-known pathogens, such as or . Despite using this massive data set, we were not able to sample the whole diversity of AR genes, which suggests that this species has an open resistome. Our results highlight the high mobilization risk of AR genes between important pathogens. On a broader perspective, this study gives a framework for an emerging perspective (resistome-centric) on the genomic epidemiology (and surveillance) of bacterial pathogens.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • CONACyT Ciencia Básica (Award 284276)
    • Principle Award Recipient: SantiagoCastillo-Ramirez
  • Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica PAPIIT (Award IN206019)
    • Principle Award Recipient: SantiagoCastillo-Ramirez
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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2022-01-25
2022-05-18
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