1887

Abstract

During 2003, O1 Ogawa was the predominant serotype among diarrhoeal patients admitted to different hospitals in India. With the exception of 3 strains from Kolkata, none of 172 strains examined exhibited resistance to tetracycline, but 45.7 % showed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Extensive molecular characterization using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, ribotyping and PFGE revealed that almost all the strains within a serogroup were clonally related. Along with the H pulsotype, a newly described L pulsotype of recently emerged O1 Inaba strains was detected among the O1 Ogawa strains from 2003. The striking similarity in their molecular properties and antibiograms indicated that at least certain clones of recently emerged Inaba strains from 2004 may have evolved from O1 Ogawa strains. This view was further supported by the detection of a nearly identical region among the O1 Ogawa and recently emerged Inaba strains, the latter differing only by a single point mutation. Since 2003, a hiatus in the isolation of serogroup O139 was observed and these strains share the same PFGE profiles as those isolated during 2000. Organization of tandemly arranged CTX, CTX and truncated CTX (devoid of ) prophages was unique among the majority of these O139 strains.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46982-0
2007-06-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/56/6/824.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46982-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bag, P. K., Maiti, S., Sharma, C., Ghosh, A., Basu, A., Mitra, R., Bhattacharya, S. K., Nakamura, S., Yamasaki, S. & other authors ( 1998; ). Rapid spread of the new clone of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in cholera endemic areas in India. Epidemiol Infect 121, 245–251.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Basu, A., Garg, P., Datta, S., Chakraborty, S., Bhattacharya, T., Khan, A., Ramamurthy, T., Bhattacharya, S. K., Yamasaki, S. & other authors ( 2000; ). Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta, 1992–1998: incidence, antibiograms, and genotypes. Emerg Infect Dis 6, 139–147.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bauer, A. W., Kirby, W. M., Sherris, J. C. & Turck, M. ( 1966; ). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol 45, 493–496.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bennish, M. L. ( 1994; ). Cholera: pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment. In Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives, pp. 229–255. Edited by I. K. Wachsmuth, P. A. Blake & O. Olsvik. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  5. Berche, P., Poyart, C., Abachin, E., Lelievre, H., Vandepitte, J., Dodin, A. & Fournier, J. M. ( 1994; ). The novel epidemic strain O139 is closely related to the pandemic strain O1 of Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis 170, 701–704.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bhattacharya, S. K., Bhattacharya, M. K., Nair, G. B., Dutta, D., Deb, A., Ramamurthy, T., Garg, S., Saha, P. K., Dutta, P. & other authors ( 1993; ). Clinical profile of acute diarrhoea cases infected with the new epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae O139: designation of the disease as cholera. J Infect 27, 11–15.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bhattacharya, T., Chatterjee, S., Maiti, D., Bhadra, R. K., Takeda, Y., Nair, G. B. & Nandy, R. K. ( 2006; ). Molecular analysis of the rstR and orfU genes of the CTX prophages integrated in the small chromosomes of environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains. Environ Microbiol 8, 526–634.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brosius, J., Ullrich, A., Raker, M. A., Gray, A., Dull, T. J., Gutell, R. R. & Noller, H. F. ( 1981; ). Construction and fine mapping of recombinant plasmids containing the rrnB ribosomal RNA operon of E. coli. Plasmid 6, 112–118.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chakraborty, S., Deokule, J. S., Garg, P., Bhattacharya, S. K., Nandy, R. K., Nair, G. B., Yamasaki, S., Takeda, Y. & Ramamurthy, T. ( 2001; ). Concomitant infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in an outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in Ahmedabad, India. J Clin Microbiol 39, 3241–3246.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chhotray, G. P., Pal, B. B., Khuntia, H. K., Chowdhury, N. R., Chakraborty, S., Yamasaki, S., Ramamurthy, T., Takeda, Y., Bhattacharya, S. K. & Nair, G. B. ( 2002; ). Incidence and molecular analysis of Vibrio cholerae associated with cholera outbreak subsequent to the super cyclone in Orissa, India. Epidemiol Infect 128, 131–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cooper, K. L., Luey, C. K., Bird, M., Terajima, J., Nair, G. B., Kam, K. M., Arakawa, E., Safa, A., Cheung, D. T. & other authors ( 2006; ). Development and validation of a PulseNet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping of Vibrio cholerae. Foodborne Pathog Dis 3, 51–58.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davis, B. M., Kimsey, H. H., Chang, W. & Waldor, M. K. ( 1999; ). The Vibrio cholerae O139 Calcutta bacteriophage CTXφ is infectious and encodes a novel repressor. J Bacteriol 181, 6779–6787.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. De, K., Ramamurthy, T., Ghose, A. C., Islam, M. S., Takeda, Y., Nair, G. B. & Nandy, R. K. ( 2001; ). Modification of the multiplex PCR for unambiguous differentiation of the El Tor and classical biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1. Indian J Med Res 114, 77–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. De, K., Nandy, R. K. & Nair, G. B. ( 2005; ). Microbiological and molecular methods to identify and characterize toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from food samples. In Food-Borne Pathogens: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Biotechnology, vol. 21), pp. 99–124. Edited by C. C. Adley. Totowa: NJ: Humana Press.
  15. Dutta, B., Ghosh, R., Sharma, N. C., Pazhani, G. P., Taneja, N., Raychowdhuri, A., Sarkar, B. L., Mondal, S. K., Mukhopadhyay, A. K. & other authors ( 2006; ). Spread of cholera with newer clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba, in India. J Clin Microbiol 44, 3391–3393.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Faruque, S. M., Saha, M. N., Asadulghani, Bag, P. K., Bhadra, R. K., Bhattacharya, S. K., Sack, R. B., Takeda, Y. & Nair, G. B. ( 2000; ). Genomic diversity among Vibrio cholerae O139 strains isolated in Bangladesh and India between 1992 and 1998. FEMS Microbiol Lett 184, 279–284.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Faruque, S. M., Chowdhury, N., Kamruzzaman, M., Ahmad, Q. S., Faruque, A. S., Salam, M. A., Ramamurthy, T., Nair, G. B., Weintraub, A. & Sack, D. A. ( 2003; ). Reemergence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 9, 1116–1122.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Garg, P., Nandy, R. K., Chaudhury, P., Chowdhury, N. R., De, K., Ramamurthy, T., Yamasaki, S., Bhattacharya, S. K., Takeda, Y. & Nair, G. B. ( 2000; ). Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba from the prevailing O1 Ogawa serotype strains in India. J Clin Microbiol 38, 4249–4253.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jesudason, M. V. ( 2006; ). Change in serotype and appearance of tetracycline resistance in V. cholerae O1 in Vellore, South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 24, 152–153.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kaper, J. B., Morris, J. G., Jr & Nishibuchi, M. ( 1988; ). DNA probes for pathogenic Vibrio species. In DNA Probes for Infectious Diseases, pp. 65–77. Edited by F. C. Tenover. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  21. Keasler, S. P. & Hall, R. H. ( 1993; ). Detecting and biotyping Vibrio cholerae O1 with multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Lancet 341, 1661 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kimsey, H. H. & Waldor, M. K. ( 1998; ). CTXφ immunity: application in the development of cholera vaccines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 7035–7039.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lee, J. H., Han, K. H., Choi, S. Y., Lucas, M. E., Mondlane, C., Ansaruzzaman, M., Nair, G. B., Sack, D. A., von Seidlein, L. & other authors ( 2006; ). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor isolates from Mozambique that harbour the classical CTX prophage. J Med Microbiol 55, 165–170.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Manning, P. A., Stroeher, U. H. & Morona, R. ( 1994; ). Molecular basis for O-antigen biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae O1: Ogawa-Inaba switching. In Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives, pp. 77–94. Edited by I. K. Wachsmuth, P. A. Blake & O. Olsvik. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  25. Murray, M. G. & Thompson, W. F. ( 1980; ). Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 8, 4321–4325.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nair, G. B., Misra, S., Bhadra, R. K. & Pal, S. C. ( 1987; ). Evaluation of the multitest medium for rapid presumptive identification of Vibrio cholerae from environmental sources. Appl Environ Microbiol 53, 1203–1205.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nair, G. B., Faruque, S. M., Bhuiyan, N. A., Kamruzzaman, M., Siddique, A. K. & Sack, D. A. ( 2002; ). New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor with attributes of the classical biotype from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 40, 3296–3299.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. NCCLS ( 2002; ). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 12th informational supplement, approved standard M100–S12. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard.
  29. Popovic, T., Bopp, C., Olsvik, O. & Wachsmuth, K. ( 1993; ). Epidemiologic application of a standardized ribotype scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1. J Clin Microbiol 31, 2474–2482.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Popovic, T., Fields, P. I., Olsvik, O., Wells, J. G., Evins, G. M., Cameron, D. N., Farmer, J. J., III, Bopp, C. A., Wachsmuth, K. & other authors ( 1995; ). Molecular subtyping of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 causing epidemic cholera in India and Bangladesh, 1992–1993. J Infect Dis 171, 122–127.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ramamurthy, T., Pal, A., Bhattacharya, M. K., Bhattacharya, S. K., Chowdhury, A. S., Takeda, Y., Takeda, T., Pal, S. C. & Nair, G. B. ( 1992; ). Serovar, biotype, phage type, toxigenicity & antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolated during two consecutive cholera seasons (1989–90) in Calcutta. Indian J Med Res 95, 125–129.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ramamurthy, T., Garg, S., Sharma, R., Bhattacharya, S. K., Nair, G. B., Shimada, T., Takeda, T., Karasawa, T., Kurazano, H. & other authors ( 1993; ). Emergence of novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in southern and eastern India. Lancet 341, 703–704.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Rijpkema, S. G., Durrani, Z., Ramamurthy, T. & Nair, G. B. ( 2004; ). Assessing clonality of Vibrio cholerae Inaba isolates by characterization of nonsense mutations in wbeT. J Med Microbiol 53, 1105–1107.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Safa, A., Bhuiyan, N. A., Alam, M., Sack, D. A. & Nair, G. B. ( 2005; ). Genomic relatedness of the new Matlab variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 to the classical and El Tor biotypes as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 43, 1401–1404.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sharma, C., Nair, G. B., Mukhopadhyay, A. K., Bhattacharya, S. K., Ghosh, R. K. & Ghosh, A. ( 1997; ). Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains isolated between 1992 and 1995 in Calcutta, India: evidence for the emergence of a new clone of the El Tor biotype. J Infect Dis 175, 1134–1141.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sinha, S., Chakraborty, R., De, K., Khan, A., Datta, S., Ramamurthy, T., Bhattacharya, S. K., Takeda, Y. & Nair, G. B. ( 2002; ). Escalating association of Vibrio cholerae O139 with cholera outbreaks in India. J Clin Microbiol 40, 2635–2637.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Taneja, N., Biswal, M., Tarai, B. & Sharma, M. ( 2005; ). Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor serotype Inaba in north India. Jpn J Infect Dis 58, 238–240.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Waldor, M. K. & Mekalanos, J. J. ( 1996; ). Lysogenic conversion by a filamentous phage encoding cholera toxin. Science 272, 1910–1914.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. WHO ( 2005; ). Cholera 2004. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80, 261–268.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. WHO ( 2006; ). Cholera 2005. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 81, 297–308.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yamasaki, S., Nair, G. B., Bhattacharya, S. K., Yamamoto, S., Kurazono, H. & Takeda, Y. ( 1997; ). Cryptic appearance of a new clone of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype El Tor in Calcutta, India. Microbiol Immunol 41, 1–6.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46982-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46982-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error