1887

Abstract

Dermatophytes cause intractable superficial infections in humans. , a zoophilic dermatophyte, triggers severe inflammatory responses in humans, while , an anthropophilic dermatophyte, triggers minimal ones. Cytokines and other factors derived from keratinocytes play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses in the skin. The authors performed an investigation to determine the human keratinocyte cytokine profiles during dermatophyte infection. The human keratinocyte cell line PHK16-0b was infected with or for 24 h, and the cytokines secreted were analysed using a human cytokine antibody array. Marked differences were observed in the cytokine profiles of the cells infected with the two dermatophytes. infection resulted in the secretion of a broad spectrum of cytokines, including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and immunomodulatory cytokines. In contrast, -infected keratinocytes secreted only limited cytokines, including eotaxin-2, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-16. cDNA microarray analysis confirmed that infection upregulated genes encoding IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-, while infection upregulated only a few genes, such as those encoding IL-1 and IL-16. RT-PCR demonstrated that infection by both dermatophytes enhanced IL-8 mRNA expression in keratinocytes. These results suggest that -induced secretion of several cytokines from keratinocytes may be involved in a severe inflammatory response, and that the limited cytokine secretion from keratinocytes in response to infection may result in a minimal inflammatory response in the skin. These cytokine profiles may aid in proving the clinical features of dermatophytosis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46632-0
2006-09-01
2020-01-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/55/9/1175.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46632-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams, B. B. ( 2002; ). Tinea corporis gladiatorum. J Am Acad Dermatol 47, 286–290.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anaissie, E. J. ( 2002; ). Dermatophytes. In Clinical Mycology, pp. 370–372. Edited by E. J. Anaissie, M. R. McGinnis & M. A. Pfaller. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone.
  3. Babel, D. E. & Baughman, S. A. ( 1989; ). Evaluation of the adult carrier state in juvenile tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans. J Am Acad Dermatol 21, 1209–1212.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baumann, H. & Gauldie, J. ( 1994; ). The acute phase response. Immunol Today 15, 74–80.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bussolino, F., Ziche, M., Wang, J. M., Alessi, D., Morbidelli, L., Cremona, O., Bosia, A., Marchisio, P. C. & Mantovani, A. ( 1991; ). In vitro and in vivo activation of endothelial cells by colony-stimulating factors. J Clin Invest 87, 986–995.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chinen, J. & Shearer, W. T. ( 2005; ). Basic and clinical immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116, 411–418.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cruickshank, W. W., Greenstein, J. L., Theodore, A. C. & Center, D. M. ( 1991; ). Lymphocyte chemoattractant factor induces CD4-dependent intracytoplasmic signaling in lymphocytes. J Immunol 146, 2928–2934.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dahl, M. V. & Grando, S. A. ( 1994; ). Chronic dermatophytosis: what is special about Trichophyton rubrum? Adv Dermatol 9, 97–109.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dedhar, S., Gaboury, L., Galloway, P. & Eaves, C. ( 1988; ). Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a growth factor active on a variety of cell types of nonhemopoietic origin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85, 9253–9257.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Deng, W., Ohmori, Y. & Hamilton, T. A. ( 1994; ). Mechanisms of IL-4-mediated suppression of IP-10 gene expression in murine macrophages. J Immunol 153, 2130–2136.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Elewski, B. E. ( 2001; ). Tinea capitis: a current perspective. J Am Acad Dermatol 45, 320–321.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Elias, J. A., Reynolds, M. M., Kotloff, R. M. & Kern, J. A. ( 1989; ). Fibroblast interleukin 1 beta: synergistic stimulation by recombinant interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor and posttranscriptional regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86, 6171–6175.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fossiez, F., Djossou, O., Chomarat, P. & 14 other authors ( 1996; ). T cell interleukin-17 induces stromal cells to produce proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. J Exp Med 183, 2593–2603.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fumeaux, J., Mock, M., Ninet, B. & 7 other authors ( 2004; ). First report of Arthroderma benhamiae in Switzerland. Dermatology 208, 244–250.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ghannoum, M., Isham, N., Hajjeh, R. & 7 other authors ( 2003; ). Tinea capitis in Cleveland: survey of elementary school students. J Am Acad Dermatol 48, 189–193.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gottlieb, A. B. ( 1988; ). Immunologic mechanisms in psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 18, 1376–1380.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Grone, A. ( 2002; ). Keratinocytes and cytokines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 88, 1–12.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gu, L., Tseng, S., Horner, R. M., Tam, C., Loda, M. & Rollins, B. J. ( 2000; ). Control of TH2 polarization by the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Nature 404, 407–411.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Horuk, R. & Ng, H. P. ( 2000; ). Chemokine receptor antagonists. Med Res Rev 20, 155–168.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ikuta, K., Shibata, N., Blake, J. S., Dahl, M. V., Nelson, R. D., Hisamichi, K., Kobayashi, H., Suzuki, S. & Okawa, Y. ( 1997; ). NMR study of the galactomannans of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum. Biochem J 323, 297–305.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jovanovic, D. V., Di Battista, J. A., Martel-Pelletier, J., Jolicoeur, F. C., He, Y., Zhang, M., Mineau, F. & Pelletier, J. P. ( 1998; ). IL-17 stimulates the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-beta and TNF-alpha, by human macrophages. J Immunol 160, 3513–3521.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kemeny, L., Ruzicka, T., Dobozy, A. & Michel, G. ( 1994; ). Role of interleukin-8 receptor in skin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 104, 317–322.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kishimoto, T., Akira, S. & Taga, T. ( 1992; ). Interleukin-6 and its receptor: a paradigm for cytokines. Science 258, 593–597.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kishimoto, T., Akira, S., Narazaki, M. & Taga, T. ( 1995; ). Interleukin-6 family of cytokines and gp130. Blood 86, 1243–1254.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Krueger, J., Ray, A., Tamm, I. & Sehgal, P. B. ( 1991; ). Expression and function of interleukin-6 in epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem 45, 327–334.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Loetscher, M., Gerber, B., Loetscher, P. S., Jones, A., Piali, L., Clark-Lewis, I., Baggiolini, M. & Moser, B. ( 1996; ). Chemokine receptor specific for IP10 and mig: structure, function, and expression in activated T-lymphocytes. J Exp Med 184, 963–969.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Makimura, K. ( 2001; ). Species identification system for dermatophytes based on the DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1. Jpn J Med Mycol 42, 61–67.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Mochizuki, T., Watanabe, S., Kawasaki, M., Tanabe, H. & Ishizaki, H. ( 2002; ). A Japanese case of tinea corporis caused by Arthroderma benhamiae. J Dermatol 29, 221–225.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Moller, P., Bohm, M., Czarnetszki, B. D. & Schadendorf, M. ( 1996; ). Interleukin-7. Biology and implications for dermatology. Exp Dermatol 5, 129–137.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nakamura, Y., Kano, R., Hasegawa, A. & Watanabe, S. ( 2002; ). Interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in human epidermal keratinocytes induced by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9, 935–937.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ohteki, T., Suzue, K., Maki, C., Ota, T. & Koyasu, S. ( 2001; ). Critical role of IL-15-IL-15R for antigen-presenting cell functions in the innate immune response. Nat Immunol 2, 1138–1143.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Olaniran, A. K., Baker, B. S., Garioch, J. J., Powles, A. V. & Fry, L. ( 1995; ). A comparison of the stimulatory effects of cytokines on normal and psoriatic keratinocytes in vitro. Arch Dermatol Res 287, 231–236.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Pivarcsi, A., Nagy, S. & Kemeny, L. ( 2005; ). Innate immunity in the skin: how keratinocytes fight against pathogens. Curr Immunol Rev 1, 29–42.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Richardson, M. D. ( 1997; ). Dermatophytosis. In Fungal Infection: Diagnosis and Management, pp. 59–60. Edited by M. D. Richardson & D. W. Warnock. Oxford: Blackwell.
  35. Rippon, J. W. ( 1988; ). Dermatophytosis and dermatomycosis. In Medical Mycology: the Pathogenic Fungi and the Pathogenic Actinomycetes, pp. 176–199. Edited by J. W. Rippon. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
  36. Rook, A. & Champion, R. H. ( 2004; ). Mycology. In Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, pp. 920–970. Edited by T. A. Burns, S. M. Breathnach, N. H. Cox & C. E. M. Griffiths. Oxford: Blackwell.
  37. Saarialho-Kere, U. K., Chang, E. S., Welgus, H. G. & Parks, W. C. ( 1992; ). Distinct localization of collagenase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases expression in wound healing associated with ulcerative pyogenic granuloma. J Clin Invest 90, 1952–1957.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Sauder, D. N. ( 1989; ). Interleukin 1. Arch Dermatol 125, 679–682.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Schwarzenberger, P., La Russa, V., Miller, A. & 9 other authors ( 1998; ). IL-17 stimulates granulopoiesis in mice: use of an alternate, novel gene therapy-derived method for in vivo evaluation of cytokines. J Immunol 161, 6383–6389.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schwinn, A., Ebert, J. & Brocker, E. B. ( 1995; ). Frequency of Trichophyton rubrum in tinea capitis. Mycoses 38, 1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Smith, A., Santoro, F., Di Lullo, G., Dagna, L., Verani, A. & Lusso, P. ( 2003; ). Selective suppression of IL-12 production by human herpesvirus 6. Blood 102, 2877–2884.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Takashima, A., Matsue, H., Bergstresser, P. R. & Ariizumi, K. ( 1995; ). Interleukin-7-dependent interaction of dendritic epidermal T cells with keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 105 (Suppl. 1), 50S–53S.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wagner, D. K. & Sohnle, P. G. ( 1995; ). Cutaneous defenses against dermatophytes and yeasts. Clin Microbiol Rev 8, 317–335.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Weitzman, I. & Summerbell, R. C. ( 1995; ). The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev 8, 240–259.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Zhu, Y. M., Webster, S. J., Flower, D. & Woll, P. J. ( 2004; ). Interleukin-8/CXCL8 is a growth factor for human lung cancer cells. Br J Cancer 91, 1970–1976.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46632-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46632-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error