1887

Abstract

Panton–Valentine leukocidine (PVL) is a distinctive virulence factor of community-associated meticillin-resistant (CA-MRSA), and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is a staphylococcal genomic island that enhances fitness and the ability of bacterial cells to colonize on skin and mucous membranes. ACME is characteristically found in USA300, which is a predominant CA-MRSA clone [sequence type (ST) 8] in the USA and is spreading globally, and has also been detected in non-ST8 MRSA at low frequency. In Japan, spread of MRSA with PVL and/or ACME and their genetic traits have not yet been well characterized. In the present study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of PVL/ACME MRSA were investigated for 422 MRSA clinical isolates collected from outpatients in northern Japan over a period of 1 year. All the isolates were genotyped for the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) and coagulase genes (), and screened for PVL and ACME genes. The PVL/ACME isolates were studied further by genetic analysis, including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis based on PVL genes (), ACME ( and clusters) and the promoter region. Among all the isolates examined, PVL genes and ACME were detected in eight (SCC-II,  = 1; SCC-IV,  = 6; SCC-V,  = 1) and 20 (SCC-II,  = 14; SCC-IV,  = 5; SCC-V,  = 1) isolates, respectively. Five isolates were found to have both PVL genes and ACME (type I), and were classified into ST8/-t008/I/-IIIa, which is the same genetic traits as USA300. Fifteen PVL/ACME isolates had type ΔII-ACME, belonging to either ST5 or ST764 [clonal complex (CC) 5], and -t001, -t002 or -t3557. All the ST8 PVL/ACME-I MRSA had identical sequences of PVL genes (haplotype R) and ACME / clusters as those of USA300. In contrast, in the CC5 PVL/ACME-ΔII MRSA, SNPs in the cluster were detected in 11 sites (four haplotypes), with some different profiles of virulence/resistance factors. These results indicated single clonality of ST8 PVL/ACME-I MRSA and heterogeneity of CC5 PVL/ACME-ΔII MRSA, and suggest their potential spread in northern Japan.

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2013-12-01
2019-10-16
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