1887

Abstract

The aims of the current study were to collect intestinal spirochaetes (genus ) from farmed and wild mallards () and to identify and classify those isolates that phenotypically resembled , an enteric pathogen of pigs. The isolation rate of spp. was high from both farmed (93 %) and wild mallards (78 %). In wild mallards, it appeared that spp. were more likely to be found in migratory birds (multivariate analysis: = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1–3.1) than in mallards sampled in a public park. Pure cultures of putative were obtained from 22 birds. All five isolates from farmed mallards and ten randomly selected isolates with this phenotype were used for further studies. All isolates from farmed mallards and two of the isolates from wild mallards were PCR-positive for the gene of . Two isolates from farmed mallards were selected for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. These isolates clustered with the type and reference strains of . 16S rDNA sequence analysis performed on 11 of the strains showed that they were all closely related to each other and to the cluster. Three of the mallard isolates had 16S rDNA sequences that were identical to those of strains R1 and NIV-1 previously isolated from common rheas (). To conclude, the isolates from farmed mallards and two isolates from wild mallards were classified as based on the fact that they could not be differentiated by any of the applied methods from type, reference and field strains of . The remaining isolates could not be assigned irrefutably to any of the presently recognized species. These results point to a broader host spectrum of than is generally recognized, and to the presence in mallards of strongly β-haemolytic and indole-producing spirochaetes that possess many, but not all, of the currently recognized characteristics of .

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2004-04-01
2019-11-19
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