1887

Abstract

In order to investigate the presence and prevalence of Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease) species, 312 unfed ticks were collected by flagging at a woodland area in Trakya, in the European side of Turkey, in May 2002. Twelve of 299 ticks were infected with spp., as determined by cultivation in BSK medium (prevalence rate 4.0 %). Ten pure cultures were subjected to further characterization by sequencing analysis of the 5S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer, 16S rDNA and flagellin gene. One isolate of , two of (Eurasian type), two of , four of and one of were identified. However, no Asian-type was found. Interestingly, all species that are known to be carried by were discovered among the 10 isolates. These results provide the first evidence for the existence of the Lyme borreliosis agent in Turkey.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05205-0
2003-09-01
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/52/9/JM520913.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05205-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aksu, M., Soyak, O., Arman, F., Elmas, O. & Demir, H. ( 1997;). A Lyme disease case presented with encephalomyelitis. J Cukurova Med School 2, 145–148 (in Turkish).
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baranton, G., Postic, D., Saint Girons, I., Boerlin, P., Piffaretti, J.-C., Assous, M. & Grimont, P. A. D. ( 1992;). Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp.nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42, 378–383.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barbour, A. G. ( 1984;). Isolation and cultivation of Lyme disease spirochetes. Yale J Biol Med 57, 521–525.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barral, M., Garcia-Perez, A. L., Juste, R. A., Hurtado, A., Escudero, R., Sellek, R. E. & Anda, P. ( 2002;). Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from the Basque Country, Spain. J Med Entomol 39, 177–184.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bil, N. ( 1998;). Lyme disease causing meningoencephalitis. J Neurol Sci 15, 13–21 (in Turkish).
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A. G., Hayes, S. F., Benach, J. L., Grunwaldt, E. & Davis, J. P. ( 1982;). Lyme disease – a tick-borne spirochetosis? Science 216, 1317–1319.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cakir, N., Akandere, Y., Hekim, N, Kovanci, E. & Yazici, H ( 1990;). Two Lyme disease cases. J Clin Proc 4, 839–841 (in Turkish).
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Canica, M. M., Nato, F., du Merle, L., Mazie, J. C., Baranton, G. & Postic, D. ( 1993;). Monoclonal antibodies for identification of Borrelia afzelii sp.nov. associated with late cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Scand J Infect Dis 25, 441–448.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Christova, I., Hohenberger, S., Zehetmeier, C. & Wilske, B. ( 1998;). First characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ticks and skin biopsy in Bulgaria. Med Microbiol Immunol 186, 171–175.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Christova, I., Schouls, L., van de Pol, I., Park, J., Panayotov, S., Lefterova, V., Kantardjiev, T. & Dumler, J. S. ( 2001;). High prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Bulgaria. J Clin Microbiol 39, 4172–4174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cinco, M., Padovan, D., Murgia, R., Poldini, L., Frusteri, L., van de Pol, I., Verbeek-De Kruif N., Rijpkema, S. & Maroli, M. ( 1998;). Rate of infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii and group VS116 in an endemic focus of Lyme disease in Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 17, 90–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. De Michelis, S., Sewell, H. S., Collares-Pereira, M., Santos-Reis, M., Schouls, L. M., Benes, V., Holmes, E. C. & Kurtenbach, K. ( 2000;). Genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks from mainland Portugal. J Clin Microbiol 38, 2128–2133.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ergul, E., Ozer, S., Ogutman, R., Hakko, M., Kara, M. & Uzun, K. ( 1996;). Two Lyme disease cases. In Abstracts of the 27th Turkish Society of Microbiology Conference, 01:P-57. Antalya (in Turkish).
  14. Escudero, R., Barral, M., Perez, A., Vitutia, M. M., Garcia-Perez, A. L., Jimenez, S., Sellek, R. E. & Anda, P. ( 2000;). Molecular and pathogenic characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Spain. J Clin Microbiol 38, 4026–4033.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gern, L., Estrada-Pena, A., Frandsen, F. & 7 other authors ( 1998;). European reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Zentbl Bakteriol 287, 196–204.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gern, L., Hu, C. M., Kocianova, E., Vyrostekova, V. & Rehacek, J. ( 1999;). Genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates obtained from Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Slovakia. Eur J Epidemiol 15, 665–669.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gray, J. S., Robertson, J. N. & Key, S. ( 2000;). Limited role of rodents as reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ireland. Eur J Epidemiol 16, 101–103.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Johnson, R. C., Schmid, G. P., Hyde, F. W., Steigerwalt, A. G. & Brenner, D. J. ( 1984;). Borrelia burgdorferi sp.nov.: etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34, 496–497.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kirstein, F., Rijpkema, S., Molkenboer, M. & Gray, J. S. ( 1997;). The distribution and prevalence of B.burgdorferi genomospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Ireland. Eur J Epidemiol 13, 67–72.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Koksal, I., Saltoglu, N., Bingul, T. & Ozturk, H. ( 1990;). Two Lyme disease case reports. J Ankem 4, 284 (in Turkish). 284 (in Turkish).
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kurtenbach, K., Peacey, M., Rijpkema, S. G., Hoodless, A. N., Nuttall, P. A. & Randolph, S. E. ( 1998;). Differential transmission of the genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by game birds and small rodents in England. Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 1169–1174.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Leblebicioglu, H. ( 1999;). A Lyme disease case presented with CNS symptoms. In Abstracts of the 4th Medical Imaging and Radiology Conference. Antalya (in Turkish).
  23. Le Fleche, A., Postic, D., Girardet, K., Peter, O. & Baranton, G. ( 1997;). Characterization of Borrelia lusitaniae sp.nov. by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 921–925.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Li, M., Masuzawa, T., Takada, N. & 7 other authors ( 1998;). Lyme disease Borrelia species in northeastern China resemble those isolated from far eastern Russia and Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 2705–2709.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Liebisch, G., Sohns, B. & Bautsch, W. ( 1998;). Detection and typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks attached to human skin by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 36, 3355–3358.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Masuzawa, T., Okada, Y., Yanagihara, Y. & Sato, N. ( 1991;). Antigenic properties of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes ovatus and Ixodes persulcatus in Hokkaido, Japan. J Clin Microbiol 29, 1568–1573.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Masuzawa, T., Wilske, B., Komikado, T. & 9 other authors ( 1996a;). Comparison of OspA serotypes for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Japan, Europe and North America. Microbiol Immunol 40, 539–545.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Masuzawa, T., Komikado, T., Iwaki, A., Suzuki, H., Kaneda, K. & Yanagihara, Y. ( 1996b;). Characterization of Borrelia sp.isolated from Ixodes tanuki, I. turdus, and I. columnae in Japan by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rrf (5S)–rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. FEMS Microbiol Lett 142, 77–83.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Masuzawa, T., Iwaki, A., Sato, Y., Miyamoto, K., Korenberg, E. I. & Yanagihara, Y. ( 1997;). Genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in far eastern Russia. Microbiol Immunol 41, 595–600.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Masuzawa, T., Fukui, T., Miyake, M., Oh, H.-B., Cho, M.-K., Chang, W.-H., Imai, Y. & Yanagihara, Y. ( 1999;). Determination of members of a Borrelia afzelii-related group isolated from Ixodes nipponensis in Korea as Borrelia valaisiana. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1409–1415.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Masuzawa, T., Pan, M. J., Kadosaka, T., Kudeken, M., Takada, N., Yano, Y., Imai, Y. & Yanagihara, Y. ( 2000;). Characterization and identification of Borrelia isolates as Borrelia valaisiana in Taiwan and Kinmen Islands. Microbiol Immunol 44, 1003–1009.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Masuzawa, T., Takada, N., Kudeken, M., Fukui, T., Yano, Y., Ishiguro, F., Kawamura, Y., Imai, Y. & Ezaki, T. ( 2001;). Borrelia sinica sp.nov., a Lyme disease-related Borrelia species isolated in China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1817–1824.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Miyamoto, K. & Masuzawa, T. ( 2002;). Ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Japan and East Asia. In Lyme Borreliosis: Biology and Control, pp. 201–222. Edited by J. Gray, O. Kahl, R. S. Lane & G. Stanek. Wallingford, UK: CABI.
  34. Mizak, B. & Krol, J. ( 2000;). Analysis of Polish isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi by amplification of rrf (5S)–rrl (23S) intergenic spacer. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 44, 147–154.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. O'Connell, S., Granstrom, M., Gray, J. S. & Stanek, G. ( 1998;). Epidemiology of European Lyme borreliosis. Zentbl Bakteriol 287, 229–240.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ozturk, R., Mert, A., Basaran, G. & Ergin, S. ( 1996;). A Lyme disease case. In Abstracts of the 27th Turkish Society of Microbiology Conference, 01:P-59. Antalya (in Turkish).
  37. Peter, O. & Bretz, A. G. ( 1992;). Polymorphism of outer surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi as a tool for classification. Zentbl Bakteriol 277, 28–33.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Postic, D., Assous, M. V., Grimont, P. A. D. & Baranton, G. ( 1994;). Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato evidenced by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 743–752.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Postic, D., Korenberg, E., Gorelova, N., Kovalevski, Y. V., Bellenger, E. & Baranton, G. ( 1997;). Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Russia and neighbouring countries: high incidence of mixed isolates. Res Microbiol 148, 691–702.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rijpkema, S., Golubic, D., Molkenboer, M., Verbeek-De Kruif, N. & Schellekens, J. ( 1996a;). Identification of four genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a Lyme borreliosis endemic region of northern Croatia. Exp Appl Acarol 20, 23–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rijpkema, S. G., Herbes, R. G., Verbeek-De Kruif, N. & Schellekens, J. F. ( 1996b;). Detection of four species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in The Netherlands. Epidemiol Infect 117, 563–566.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987;). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sato, Y., Miyamoto, K., Iwaki, A. & 7 other authors ( 1996;). Prevalence of Lyme disease spirochetes in Ixodes persulcatus and wild rodents in far eastern Russia. Appl Environ Microbiol 62, 3887–3889.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Stamouli, M., Totos, G., Braun, H. B., Michel, G. & Gizaris, V. ( 2000;). Very low seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in young Greek males. Eur J Epidemiol 16, 495–496.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Steere, A. C. ( 2001;). Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 345, 115–125.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Takada, N., Ishiguro, F., Fujita, H., Wang, H. P., Wang, J. C. & Masuzawa, T. ( 1998;). Lyme disease spirochetes in ticks from northeastern China. J Parasitol 84, 499–504.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Takada, N., Fujita, H., Yano, Y., Ishiguro, F., Iwasaki, H. & Masuzawa, T. ( 2001a;). First records of tick-borne pathogens, Borrelia, and spotted fever group rickettsiae in Okinawajima Island, Japan. Microbiol Immunol 45, 163–165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Takada, N., Masuzawa, T., Ishiguro, F. & 7 other authors ( 2001b;). Lyme disease Borrelia spp.in ticks and rodents from northwestern China. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 5161–5165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997;). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Wang, G., van Dam, A. P., Le Fleche, A., Postic, D., Peter, O., Baranton, G., de Boer, R., Spanjaard, L. & Dankert, J. ( 1997;). Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp.nov. (Borrelia genomic groups VS116 and M19). Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 926–932.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wang, G., van Dam, A. P., Schwartz, I. & Dankert, J. ( 1999;). Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications. Clin Microbiol Rev 12, 633–653.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Yanagihara, Y. & Masuzawa, T. ( 1997;). Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis). FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 18, 249–261.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Younsi, H., Postic, D., Baranton, G. & Bouattour, A. ( 2001;). High prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Tunisia. Eur J Epidemiol 17, 53–56.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Zhioua, E., Bouattour, A., Hu, C. M., Gharbi, M., Aeschliman, A., Ginsberg, H. S. & Gern, L. ( 1999;). Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa. J Med Entomol 36, 216–218.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05205-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05205-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error