1887

Abstract

Combination of chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine and so-called ‘controlled human malaria infections’ has been shown to induce sustained and fully protective immunity against malaria in experimental settings. This opens possibilities of translating this approach into an effective and applicable strategy for the field. We review the different ways in which antimalarial drugs have been used for prevention of malaria in endemic settings and discuss the possibilities and challenges of applying a strategy of drug use and naturally acquired infection in the field.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.041277-0
2012-07-01
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/61/7/904.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.041277-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Accapezzato D. , Visco V. , Francavilla V. , Molette C. , Donato T. , Paroli M. , Mondelli M. U. , Doria M. , Torrisi M. R. , Barnaba V. . ( 2005; ). Chloroquine enhances human CD8+ T cell responses against soluble antigens in vivo . . J Exp Med 202:, 817–828. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aponte J. J. , Schellenberg D. , Egan A. , Breckenridge A. , Carneiro I. , Critchley J. , Danquah I. , Dodoo A. , Kobbe R. . & other authors ( 2009; ). Efficacy and safety of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for malaria in African infants: a pooled analysis of six randomised, placebo-controlled trials. . Lancet 374:, 1533–1542. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Belnoue E. , Costa F. T. , Frankenberg T. , Vigário A. M. , Voza T. , Leroy N. , Rodrigues M. M. , Landau I. , Snounou G. , Rénia L. . ( 2004; ). Protective T cell immunity against malaria liver stage after vaccination with live sporozoites under chloroquine treatment. . J Immunol 172:, 2487–2495.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Björkman A. , Brohult J. , Pehrson P. O. , Willcox M. , Rombo L. , Hedman P. , Kollie E. , Alestig K. , Hanson A. , Bengtsson E. . ( 1986; ). Monthly antimalarial chemotherapy to children in a holoendemic area of Liberia. . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 80:, 155–167.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Borrmann S. , Matuschewski K. . ( 2011; ). Protective immunity against malaria by ‘natural immunization’: a question of dose, parasite diversity, or both?. Curr Opin Immunol 23:, 500–508. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boulanger D. , Sarr J. B. , Fillol F. , Sokhna C. , Cissé B. , Schacht A. M. , Trape J. F. , Riveau G. , Simondon F. . & other authors ( 2010; ). Immunological consequences of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in Senegalese preschool children. . Malar J 9:, 363. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bradley-Moore A. M. , Greenwood B. M. , Bradley A. K. , Bartlett A. , Bidwell D. E. , Voller A. , Kirkwood B. R. , Gilles H. M. . ( 1985; ). Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. I. Its effect on mortality, morbidity and the prevalence of malaria. . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 79:, 549–562.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brentlinger P. E. , Dgedge M. , Correia M. A. C. , Rojas A. J. B. , Saúte F. , Gimbel-Sherr K. H. , Stubbs B. A. , Mercer M. A. , Gloyd S. . ( 2007; ). Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in central Mozambique. . Bull World Health Organ 85:, 873–879.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cairns M. , Carneiro I. , Milligan P. , Owusu-Agyei S. , Awine T. , Gosling R. , Greenwood B. , Chandramohan D. . ( 2008; ). Duration of protection against malaria and anaemia provided by intermittent preventive treatment in infants in Navrongo, Ghana. . PLoS ONE 3:, e2227. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cissé B. , Sokhna C. , Boulanger D. , Milet J. , H. , Richardson K. , Hallett R. , Sutherland C. , Simondon K. . & other authors ( 2006; ). Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with artesunate and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in Senegalese children: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. . Lancet 367:, 659–667. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cornille-Brögger R. , Mathews H. M. , Storey J. , Ashkar T. S. , Brögger S. , Molineaux L. . ( 1978; ). Changing patterns in the humoral immune response to malaria before, during, and after the application of control measures: a longitudinal study in the West African savanna. . Bull World Health Organ 56:, 579–600.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Diallo D. A. , Sutherland C. , Nebie I. , Konaté A. T. , Ord R. , Ilboudo-Sanogo E. , Greenwood B. M. , Cousens S. N. . ( 2007; ). Children in Burkina Faso who are protected by insecticide-treated materials are able to clear drug-resistant parasites better than unprotected children. . J Infect Dis 196:, 138–144. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dicko A. , Barry A. , Dicko M. , Diallo A. I. , Tembine I. , Dicko Y. , Dara N. , Sidibe Y. , Santara G. . & other authors ( 2011; ). Malaria morbidity in children in the year after they had received intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in Mali: a randomized control trial. . PLoS ONE 6:, e23390. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dunne M. W. , Singh N. , Shukla M. , Valecha N. , Bhattacharyya P. C. , Dev V. , Patel K. , Mohapatra M. K. , Lakhani J. . & other authors ( 2005; ). A multicenter study of azithromycin, alone and in combination with chloroquine, for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India. . J Infect Dis 191:, 1582–1588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Four Artemisinin-Based Combinations (4ABC) Study Group ( 2011; ). A head-to-head comparison of four artemisinin-based combinations for treating uncomplicated malaria in African children: a randomized trial. . PLoS Med 8:, e1001119. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Friesen J. , Matuschewski K. . ( 2011; ). Comparative efficacy of pre-erythrocytic whole organism vaccine strategies against the malaria parasite. . Vaccine 29:, 7002–7008. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fryauff D. J. , Baird J. K. , Purnomo , Awalludin M. , Jones T. , Subianto B. , Richie T. L. , Tjitra E. , Wignall F. S. , Hoffman S. L. . ( 1997; ). Malaria in a nonimmune population after extended chloroquine or primaquine prophylaxis. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 56:, 137–140.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Geerligs P. D. , Brabin B. J. , Eggelte T. A. . ( 2003; ). Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality. . Bull World Health Organ 81:, 205–216.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ginsburg H. . ( 2005; ). Should chloroquine be laid to rest?. Acta Trop 96:, 16–23. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Greenwood B. . ( 2010; ). Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas. . Malar J 9: (Suppl. 3), S2. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Greenwood B. M. , David P. H. , Otoo-Forbes L. N. , Allen S. J. , Alonso P. L. , Armstrong Schellenberg J. R. , Byass P. , Hurwitz M. , Menon A. , Snow R. W. . ( 1995; ). Mortality and morbidity from malaria after stopping malaria chemoprophylaxis. . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89:, 629–633. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Guilbride D. L. , Gawlinski P. , Guilbride P. D. . ( 2010; ). Why functional pre-erythrocytic and bloodstage malaria vaccines fail: a meta-analysis of fully protective immunizations and novel immunological model. . PLoS ONE 5:, e10685. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Harland P. S. , Frood J. D. , Parkin J. M. . ( 1975; ). Some effects of partial malaria suppression in Ugandan children during the first 3 years of life. . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 69:, 261–262. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hoffman S. L. , Goh L. M. , Luke T. C. , Schneider I. , Le T. P. , Doolan D. L. , Sacci J. , de la Vega P. , Dowler M. . & other authors ( 2002; ). Protection of humans against malaria by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. . J Infect Dis 185:, 1155–1164. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hogh B. , Thompson R. , Lobo V. , Dgedge M. , Dziegiel M. , Borre M. , Gottschau A. , Streat E. , Schapira A. , Barreto J. . ( 1994; ). The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique. . Acta Trop 57:, 265–277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kariuki S. K. , Lal A. A. , Terlouw D. J. , ter Kuile F. O. , Ong’echa J. M. , Phillips-Howard P. A. , Orago A. S. , Kolczak M. S. , Hawley W. A. . & other authors ( 2003a; ). Effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on immunity to malaria in western Kenya. II. Antibody responses in young children in an area of intense malaria transmission. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: (Suppl. 4), 108–114.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kariuki S. K. , ter Kuile F. O. , Wannemuehler K. , Terlouw D. J. , Kolczak M. S. , Hawley W. A. , Phillips-Howard P. A. , Orago A. S. , Nahlen B. L. . & other authors ( 2003b; ). Effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on immunity to malaria in western Kenya. I. Antibody responses in pregnant women and cord blood in an area of intense malaria transmission. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: (Suppl. 4), 61–67.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Konaté A. T. , Yaro J. B. , Ouédraogo A. Z. , Diarra A. , Gansané A. , Soulama I. , Kangoyé D. T. , Kaboré Y. , Ouédraogo E. . & other authors ( 2011; ). Morbidity from malaria in children in the year after they had received intermittent preventive treatment of malaria: a randomised trial. . PLoS ONE 6:, e23391. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McGregor I. A. , Gilles H. M. . ( 1960; ). Studies on the significance of high serum gamma-globulin concentrations in Gambian Africans. I. Gamma-globulin concentrations of Gambian children in the fourth, fifth and sixth years of life. . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 54:, 275–280.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Menendez C. , Kahigwa E. , Hirt R. , Vounatsou P. , Aponte J. J. , Font F. , Acosta C. J. , Schellenberg D. M. , Galindo C. M. . & other authors ( 1997; ). Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. . Lancet 350:, 844–850. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mockenhaupt F. P. , Reither K. , Zanger P. , Roepcke F. , Danquah I. , Saad E. , Ziniel P. , Dzisi S. Y. , Frempong M. . & other authors ( 2007; ). Intermittent preventive treatment in infants as a means of malaria control: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in northern Ghana. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:, 3273–3281. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Molineaux L. , Gramiccia G. . ( 1980; ). The Garki Project. Research on the Epidemiology and Control of Malaria in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa. Geneva:: World Health Organization;.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nakornchai S. , Konthiang P. . ( 2006; ). Activity of azithromycin or erythromycin in combination with antimalarial drugs against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro . . Acta Trop 100:, 185–191. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ocaña-Morgner C. , Mota M. M. , Rodriguez A. . ( 2003; ). Malaria blood stage suppression of liver stage immunity by dendritic cells. . J Exp Med 197:, 143–151. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Okell L. C. , Ghani A. C. , Lyons E. , Drakeley C. J. . ( 2009; ). Submicroscopic infection in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. . J Infect Dis 200:, 1509–1517. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Otoo L. N. , Snow R. W. , Menon A. , Byass P. , Greenwood B. M. . ( 1988; ). Immunity to malaria in young Gambian children after a two-year period of chemoprophylaxis. . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82:, 59–65. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Otoo L. N. , Riley E. M. , Menon A. , Byass P. , Greenwood B. M. . ( 1989; ). Cellular immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children receiving long term anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis. . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83:, 778–782. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Oyediran A. B. , Topley E. , Osunkoya B. O. , Bamgboye A. , Williams A. I. , Ogunba E. O. , Asuzu M. C. . ( 1993; ). Severe morbidity among children in a trial malaria chemoprophylaxis with pyrimethamine or chloroquine in Ibarapa, Nigeria. . Afr J Med Med Sci 22:, 55–63.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Quelhas D. , Puyol L. , Quintó L. , Serra-Casas E. , Nhampossa T. , Macete E. , Aide P. , Mayor A. , Mandomando I. . & other authors ( 2008; ). Impact of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine on antibody responses to erythrocytic-stage Plasmodium falciparum antigens in infants in Mozambique. . Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:, 1282–1291. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Roestenberg M. , McCall M. , Hopman J. , Wiersma J. , Luty A. J. , van Gemert G. J. , van de Vegte-Bolmer M. , van Schaijk B. , Teelen K. . & other authors ( 2009; ). Protection against a malaria challenge by sporozoite inoculation. . N Engl J Med 361:, 468–477. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Roestenberg M. , Teirlinck A. C. , McCall M. B. B. , Teelen K. , Makamdop K. N. , Wiersma J. , Arens T. , Beckers P. , van Gemert G. . & other authors ( 2011; ). Long-term protection against malaria after experimental sporozoite inoculation: an open-label follow-up study. . Lancet 377:, 1770–1776. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership ( 2011; ). First results of phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children. . N Engl J Med 365:, 1863–1875. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Saarinen M. , Thoren E. , Iyambo N. , Carlstedt A. , Shinyafa L. , Fernanda M. , Paajanen H. , Paajanen K. , Indongo I. , Rombo L. . ( 1988; ). Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil to Namibian refugee children in Angola. . Trop Med Parasitol 39:, 40–42.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sauerwein R. W. , Bijker E. M. , Richie T. L. . ( 2010; ). Empowering malaria vaccination by drug administration. . Curr Opin Immunol 22:, 367–373. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Sauerwein R. W. , Roestenberg M. , Moorthy V. S. . ( 2011; ). Experimental human challenge infections can accelerate clinical malaria vaccine development. . Nat Rev Immunol 11:, 57–64. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Schellenberg D. , Menendez C. , Aponte J. J. , Kahigwa E. , Tanner M. , Mshinda H. , Alonso P. . ( 2005; ). Intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment for Tanzanian infants: follow-up to age 2 years of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. . Lancet 365:, 1481–1483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Schreiber N. , Kobbe R. , Adjei S. , Adjei O. , Klinkert M. Q. , May J. . ( 2007; ). Immune responses after single-dose sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine indicate underestimation of protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment in infants. . Trop Med Int Health 12:, 1157–1163. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Schultz L. J. , Steketee R. W. , Macheso A. , Kazembe P. , Chitsulo L. , Wirima J. J. . ( 1994; ). The efficacy of antimalarial regimens containing sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine and/or chloroquine in preventing peripheral and placental Plasmodium falciparum infection among pregnant women in Malawi. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 51:, 515–522.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sicuri E. , Bardají A. , Nhampossa T. , Maixenchs M. , Nhacolo A. , Nhalungo D. , Alonso P. L. , Menéndez C. . ( 2010; ). Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in southern Mozambique. . PLoS ONE 5:, e13407. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sinclair D. , Zani B. , Donegan S. , Olliaro P. , Garner P. . ( 2009; ). Artemisinin-based combination therapy for treating uncomplicated malaria. . Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3), CD007483.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Snow R. W. , Marsh K. . ( 1995; ). Will reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission alter malaria mortality among African children?. Parasitol Today 11:, 188–190. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Teirlinck A. C. , McCall M. B. B. , Roestenberg M. , Scholzen A. , Woestenenk R. , de Mast Q. , van der Ven A. J. A. M. , Hermsen C. C. , Luty A. J. F. , Sauerwein R. W. . ( 2011; ). Longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in humans. . PLoS Pathog 7:, e1002389. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. ter Kuile F. O. , van Eijk A. M. , Filler S. J. . ( 2007; ). Effect of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance on the efficacy of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria control during pregnancy: a systematic review. . JAMA 297:, 2603–2616. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Trape J.-F. , Rogier C. . ( 1996; ). Combating malaria morbidity and mortality by reducing transmission. . Parasitol Today 12:, 236–240. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. van Eijk A. M. , Terlouw D. J. . ( 2011; ). Azithromycin for treating uncomplicated malaria. . Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2), CD006688.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. van Eijk A. M. , Hill J. , Alegana V. A. , Kirui V. , Gething P. W. , ter Kuile F. O. , Snow R. W. . ( 2011; ). Coverage of malaria protection in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis and analysis of national survey data. . Lancet Infect Dis 11:, 190–207. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Voller A. , Wilson H. . ( 1964; ). Immunological aspects of a population under prophylaxis against malaria. . BMJ 2:, 551–552. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. von Seidlein L. , Greenwood B. M. . ( 2003; ). Mass administrations of antimalarial drugs. . Trends Parasitol 19:, 452–460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. WHO ( 2011a; ). World Malaria Report 2011. http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2011/en/
  60. WHO ( 2011b; ). Tables of Malaria Vaccine Projects Globally. “The Rainbow Tables . http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/links/Rainbow/en/index.html
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.041277-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.041277-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error