1887

Abstract

The exotoxin gene content was established for 62 isolates causing bloodstream ( = 31) and wound ( = 31) infections in geriatric patients attending a long-term care Spanish hospital from 1996 to 2006. Content was determined based on PCR screening of genes encoding five haemolysins, three exfoliatins, three leukotoxins and 21 pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs), in addition to markers of genomic (νSaβ) and pathogenicity (SaPIs) islands. Exotoxin genes were abundant in both bloodstream (11–23 genes) and wound (8–19 genes) isolates, and they were arranged in 55 combinations with only two represented in both groups. All isolates were positive for genes encoding haemolysins (; 3–5) and PTSAgs (, and ; 5–14), whereas exfoliatin () and leukotoxin () genes appeared in 98.4 and 51.6 % of isolates, respectively. The , , , and genes were found significantly more frequently in bloodstream than in wound isolates, whereas -variant, , , and were more frequent in wound isolates (<0.05). Distinctive exotoxin gene combinations could potentially be associated with specific mobile genetic elements, including genomic islands [, (, , , , ) and 2 (, , , , , )]; pathogenicity islands (, , , , , and ); bacteriophages (, , , , , and ); and plasmids (, , , and ). The abundance of exotoxin genes and variety of arrangements shown by from geriatric patients could play a role in the adaptation of the pathogen.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034611-0
2011-11-01
2020-01-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/11/1605.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034611-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altboum Z., Hertman I., Sarid S.. ( 1985;). Penicillinase plasmid-linked genetic determinants for enterotoxins B and C1 production in Staphylococcus aureus. . Infect Immun 47:, 514–521.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Argudín M. A., Mendoza M. C., Méndez F. J., Martín M. C., Guerra B., Rodicio M. R.. ( 2009;). Clonal complexes and diversity of exotoxin gene profiles in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients in a Spanish hospital. . J Clin Microbiol 47:, 2097–2105. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Argudín M. A., Mendoza M. C., Rodicio M. R.. ( 2010;). Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. . Toxins 2:, 1751–1773. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Argudín M. A., Mendoza M. C., Vázquez F., Guerra B., Rodicio M. R.. ( 2011a;). Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates from geriatric patients attending a long-term care Spanish hospital. . J Med Microbiol 60:, 172–179. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Argudín M. A., Tenhagen B.-A., Fetsch A., Sachsenröder J., Käsbohrer A., Schroeter A., Hammerl J. A., Hertwig S., Helmuth R. et al. ( 2011b;). Virulence and resistance determinants of German Staphylococcus aureus ST398 isolates from nonhuman sources. . Appl Environ Microbiol 77:, 3052–3060. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baba T., Takeuchi F., Kuroda M., Yuzawa H., Aoki K., Oguchi A., Nagai Y., Iwama N., Asano K. et al. ( 2002;). Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA. . Lancet 359:, 1819–1827. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baba T., Bae T., Schneewind O., Takeuchi F., Hiramatsu K.. ( 2008;). Genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman and comparative analysis of staphylococcal genomes: polymorphism and evolution of two major pathogenicity islands. . J Bacteriol 190:, 300–310. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baba-Moussa L., Anani L., Scheftel J. M., Couturier M., Riegel P., Haïkou N., Hounsou F., Monteil H., Sanni A., Prévost G.. ( 2008;). Virulence factors produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urinary tract infections. . J Hosp Infect 68:, 32–38. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bachert C., Zhang N., Patou J., van Zele T., Gevaert P.. ( 2008;). Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease. . Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:, 34–38. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bayles K. W., Iandolo J. J.. ( 1989;). Genetic and molecular analyses of the gene encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin D. . J Bacteriol 171:, 4799–4806.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Becker K., Friedrich A. W., Lubritz G., Weilert M., Peters G., Von Eiff C.. ( 2003;). Prevalence of genes encoding pyrogenic toxin superantigens and exfoliative toxins among strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood and nasal specimens. . J Clin Microbiol 41:, 1434–1439. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Campbell S. J., Deshmukh H. S., Nelson C. L., Bae I. G., Stryjewski M. E., Federspiel J. J., Tonthat G. T., Rude T. H., Barriere S. L. et al. ( 2008;). Genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a multinational trial of complicated skin and skin structure infections. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 678–684. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Couch J. L., Soltis M. T., Betley M. J.. ( 1988;). Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the type E staphylococcal enterotoxin gene. . J Bacteriol 170:, 2954–2960.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dinges M. M., Orwin P. M., Schlievert P. M.. ( 2000;). Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus. . Clin Microbiol Rev 13:, 16–34. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ferry T., Perpoint T., Vandenesch F., Etienne J.. ( 2005;). Virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus and their involvement in clinical syndromes. . Curr Infect Dis Rep 7:, 420–428. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fueyo J. M., Martín M. C., González-Hevia M. A., Mendoza M. C.. ( 2001;). Enterotoxin production and DNA fingerprinting in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from human and food samples. Relations between genetic types and enterotoxins. . Int J Food Microbiol 67:, 139–145. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fueyo J. M., Mendoza M. C., Alvarez M. A., Martín M. C.. ( 2005a;). Relationships between toxin gene content and genetic background in nasal carried isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Asturias, Spain. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 243:, 447–454. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fueyo J. M., Mendoza M. C., Martín M. C.. ( 2005b;). Enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin in Staphylococcus aureus recovered from human nasal carriers and manually handled foods: epidemiological and genetic findings. . Microbes Infect 7:, 187–194. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fueyo J. M., Mendoza M. C., Rodicio M. R., Muñiz J., Alvarez M. A., Martín M. C.. ( 2005c;). Cytotoxin and pyrogenic toxin superantigen gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy cows and relationships with macrorestriction genomic profiles. . J Clin Microbiol 43:, 1278–1284. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ghebremedhin B., Olugbosi M. O., Raji A. M., Layer F., Bakare R. A., König B., König W.. ( 2009;). Emergence of a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain with a unique resistance profile in Southwest Nigeria. . J Clin Microbiol 47:, 2975–2980. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gill S. R., Fouts D. E., Archer G. L., Mongodin E. F., Deboy R. T., Ravel J., Paulsen I. T., Kolonay J. F., Brinkac L. et al. ( 2005;). Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. . J Bacteriol 187:, 2426–2438. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Goerke C., Pantucek R., Holtfreter S., Schulte B., Zink M., Grumann D., Bröker B. M., Doskar J., Wolz C.. ( 2009;). Diversity of prophages in dominant Staphylococcus aureus clonal lineages. . J Bacteriol 191:, 3462–3468. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Holtfreter S., Grumann D., Schmudde M., Nguyen H. T., Eichler P., Strommenger B., Kopron K., Kolata J., Giedrys-Kalemba S. et al. ( 2007;). Clonal distribution of superantigen genes in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. . J Clin Microbiol 45:, 2669–2680. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hu D. L., Omoe K., Inoue F., Kasai T., Yasujima M., Shinagawa K., Nakane A.. ( 2008;). Comparative prevalence of superantigenic toxin genes in meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates. . J Med Microbiol 57:, 1106–1112. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kaneko J., Kamio Y.. ( 2004;). Bacterial two-component and hetero-heptameric pore-forming cytolytic toxins: structures, pore-forming mechanism, and organization of the genes. . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68:, 981–1003. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Larkin E. A., Carman R. J., Krakauer T., Stiles B. G.. ( 2009;). Staphylococcus aureus: the toxic presence of a pathogen extraordinaire. . Curr Med Chem 16:, 4003–4019. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lina G., Piémont Y., Godail-Gamot F., Bes M., Peter M. O., Gauduchon V., Vandenesch F., Etienne J.. ( 1999;). Involvement of Panton–Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. . Clin Infect Dis 29:, 1128–1132. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Monecke S., Luedicke C., Slickers P., Ehricht R.. ( 2009;). Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in asymptomatic carriers. . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:, 1159–1165. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Monk A. B., Curtis S., Paul J., Enright M. C.. ( 2004;). Genetic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus from intravenous drug user lesions. . J Med Microbiol 53:, 223–227. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nashev D., Toshkova K., Bizeva L., Akineden O., Lämmler C., Zschöck M.. ( 2007;). Distribution of enterotoxin genes among carriage- and infection-associated isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. . Lett Appl Microbiol 45:, 681–685. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Nishifuji K., Sugai M., Amagai M.. ( 2008;). Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins: “molecular scissors” of bacteria that attack the cutaneous defense barrier in mammals. . J Dermatol Sci 49:, 21–31. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Noto M. J., Archer G. L.. ( 2006;). A subset of Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV is deficient in CcrAB-mediated SCCmec excision. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:, 2782–2788. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Novick R. P., Subedi A.. ( 2007;). The SaPIs: mobile pathogenicity islands of Staphylococcus. . Chem Immunol Allergy 93:, 42–57. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ono H. K., Omoe K., Imanishi K., Iwakabe Y., Hu D. L., Kato H., Saito N., Nakane A., Uchiyama T., Shinagawa K.. ( 2008;). Identification and characterization of two novel staphylococcal enterotoxins, types S and T. . Infect Immun 76:, 4999–5005. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ozaki K., Takano M., Higuchi W., Takano T., Yabe S., Nitahara Y., Nishiyama A., Yamamoto T.. ( 2009;). Genotypes, intrafamilial transmission, and virulence potential of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from children in the community. . J Infect Chemother 15:, 84–91. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Peacock S. J., Moore C. E., Justice A., Kantzanou M., Story L., Mackie K., O’Neill G., Day N. P.. ( 2002;). Virulent combinations of adhesin and toxin genes in natural populations of Staphylococcus aureus. . Infect Immun 70:, 4987–4996. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Peck K. R., Baek J. Y., Song J. H., Ko K. S.. ( 2009;). Comparison of genotypes and enterotoxin genes between Staphylococcus aureus isolates from blood and nasal colonizers in a Korean hospital. . J Korean Med Sci 24:, 585–591. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Robinson D. A., Monk A. B., Cooper J. E., Feil E. J., Enright M. C.. ( 2005;). Evolutionary genetics of the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus in Staphylococcus aureus. . J Bacteriol 187:, 8312–8321. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Sambrook J., Russell D.. ( 2000;). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, , 3rd edn.. Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schlievert P. M., Case L. C., Strandberg K. L., Abrams B. B., Leung D. Y.. ( 2008;). Superantigen profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. . Clin Infect Dis 46:, 1562–1567. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Struelens M. J.. ( 1996;). Consensus guidelines for appropriate use and evaluation of microbial epidemiologic typing systems. . Clin Microbiol Infect 2:, 2–11. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tristan A., Bes M., Meugnier H., Lina G., Bozdogan B., Courvalin P., Reverdy M. E., Enright M. C., Vandenesch F., Etienne J.. ( 2007;). Global distribution of Panton–Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006. . Emerg Infect Dis 13:, 594–600. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Varshney A. K., Mediavilla J. R., Robiou N., Guh A., Wang X., Gialanella P., Levi M. H., Kreiswirth B. N., Fries B. C.. ( 2009;). Diverse enterotoxin gene profiles among clonal complexes of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the Bronx, New York. . Appl Environ Microbiol 75:, 6839–6849. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Yamaguchi T., Hayashi T., Takami H., Ohnishi M., Murata T., Nakayama K., Asakawa K., Ohara M., Komatsuzawa H., Sugai M.. ( 2001;). Complete nucleotide sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus exfoliative toxin B plasmid and identification of a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase, EDIN-C. . Infect Immun 69:, 7760–7771. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Yamaguchi T., Nishifuji K., Sasaki M., Fudaba Y., Aepfelbacher M., Takata T., Ohara M., Komatsuzawa H., Amagai M., Sugai M.. ( 2002;). Identification of the Staphylococcus aureus etd pathogenicity island which encodes a novel exfoliative toxin, ETD, and EDIN-B. . Infect Immun 70:, 5835–5845. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034611-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034611-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error