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Abstract

is a known cause of chronic subcutaneous zygomycosis. During the past decade, many cases have been reported with extracutaneous basidiobolomycosis. We aimed to review the medical literature on gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) as an emerging fungal infection causing a serious, and occasionally fatal, paediatric disease. We reviewed all reported cases of visceral basidiobolomycosis with special focus on the gastrointestinal involvement in children. Twenty-six cases of GIB have been reported worldwide, in 14 adults and 12 children. All cases presented with fever, abdominal pain with mass and high blood eosinophilia and were misdiagnosed as other chronic granulomatous diseases or malignancies. A few cases of retroperitoneal, pulmonary, nasal and disseminated basidiobolomycosis have also been reported. Basidiobolomycosis mostly affects young males as a subcutaneous infection. The visceral form of infection is rare. GIB has been scarcely reported in the medical literature, but recently it has been increasingly recognized. GIB poses diagnostic difficulties. Abdominal pain with mass and eosinophilia were present in all cases, highlighting the necessity of considering GIB in the differential diagnosis of this presentation. has been reported to cause disseminated fatal disease in both immune-competent and -compromised individuals. Culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but the characteristic histopathological picture of chronic granulomas rich in eosinophils and the Splendore–Hoeppli phenomenon are the usual diagnostic tools. Surgery plus long courses of itraconazole treatment, up to 1 year, appear to be the best management options. GIB is an emerging infection that might lead to diagnostic confusion, morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever, abdominal pain with mass and eosinophilia.

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2011-07-01
2021-10-26
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