1887

Abstract

To determine the association of clinical characteristics with types and subtypes, faecal specimens from 2548 children with diarrhoea were screened by microscopy for spp., and positive specimens were genotyped and subtyped by PCR-RFLP. A total of 87 of the 2548 children (3.4 %) had cryptosporidial diarrhoea by microscopy and the majority (41.4 %) of the infected children were in the 4–8-year-old age group. Molecular characterization of the 83 children studied further (4 had mixed infections and were not subtyped) showed that was the most commonly identified species (73.5 %) and consisted of three subtypes: IIa and IId were the most common (80.3 %), followed by IIc. Twenty-two (26.5 %) of the children had and showed three subtypes: Id was the most common (54.5 %), followed by Ia (36.4 %) and Ie. Associated clinical manifestations varied between and . Diarrhoea associated with subtype Id, the most commonly identified subtype, was more severe than that associated with other subtypes. In conclusion, this study confirmed a very different genotype and subtype distribution compared with other tropical countries among Kuwaiti children with diarrhoea, with a predominance of IIa and IId. In addition, subtype Id of was associated with more diverse and severe clinical manifestations in infected children, suggesting that parasite genetics may play an important role in the clinical manifestations of human cryptosporidiosis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.028001-0
2011-05-01
2020-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/5/647.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.028001-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ajjampur S. S. R. , Gladstone B. P. , Selvapandian D. , Muliyil J. P. , Ward H. , Kang G. . ( 2007; ). Molecular and spatial epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in children in a semiurban community in South India. . J Clin Microbiol 45:, 915–920. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ajjampur S. S. R. , Liakath F. B. , Kannan A. , Rajendran P. , Sarkar R. , Moses P. D. , Simon A. , Agarwal I. , Mathew A. et al. ( 2010; ). Multisite study of cryptosporidiosis in children with diarrhea in India. . J Clin Microbiol 48:, 2075–2081. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Albert M. J. , Faruque S. M. , Faruque A. S. , Neogi P. K. , Ansaruzzaman M. , Bhuiyan N. A. , Alam K. , Akbar M. S. . ( 1995; ). Controlled study of Escherichia coli diarrheal infections in Bangladeshi children. . J Clin Microbiol 33:, 973–977.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Al Braiken F. A. , Amin A. , Beeching N. J. , Hommel M. , Hart C. A. . ( 2003; ). Detection of Cryptosporidium amongst diarrhoeic and asymptomatic children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97:, 505–510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Alves M. , Xiao L. , Sulaiman I. , Lal A. A. , Matos O. , Antunes F. . ( 2003; ). Subgenotype analysis of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans, cattle, and zoo ruminants in Portugal. . J Clin Microbiol 41:, 2744–2747. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cama V. A. , Ross J. M. , Crawford S. , Kawai V. , Chavez-Valdez R. , Vargas D. , Vivar A. , Ticona E. , Navincopa M. et al. ( 2007; ). Differences in clinical manifestations among Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV-infected persons. . J Infect Dis 196:, 684–691. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cama V. A. , Bern C. , Roberts J. , Cabrera L. , Sterling C. R. , Ortega Y. , Gilman R. H. , Xiao L. . ( 2008; ). Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and clinical manifestations in children, Peru. . Emerg Infect Dis 14:, 1567–1574. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gatei W. , Greensill J. , Ashford R. W. , Cuevas L. E. , Parry C. M. , Cunliffe N. A. , Beeching N. J. , Hart C. A. . ( 2003; ). Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium parasites from patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus infections living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. . J Clin Microbiol 41:, 1458–1462. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Geurden T. , Levecke B. , Cacció S. M. , Visser A. , De Groote G. , Casaert S. , Vercruysse J. , Claerebout E. . ( 2009; ). Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in non-outbreak related cases of diarrhoea in human patients in Belgium. . Parasitology 136:, 1161–1168. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Glaberman S. , Moore J. E. , Lowery C. J. , Chalmers R. M. , Sulaiman I. , Elwin K. , Rooney P. J. , Millar B. C. , Dooley J. S. et al. ( 2002; ). Three drinking-water-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, Northern Ireland. . Emerg Infect Dis 8:, 631–633.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hijjawi N. , Ng J. , Yang R. , Atoum M. F. , Ryan U. . ( 2010; ). Identification of rare and novel Cryptosporidium GP60 subtypes in human isolates from Jordan. . Exp Parasitol 125:, 161–164. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Iqbal J. , Munir M. A. , Khan M. A. . ( 1999; ). Cryptosporidium infection in young children with diarrhea in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:, 868–870.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Iqbal J. , Hira P. R. , Al-Ali F. , Philip R. . ( 2001; ). Cryptosporidiosis in Kuwaiti children: seasonality and endemicity. . Clin Microbiol Infect 7:, 261–266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jex A. R. , Gasser R. B. . ( 2010; ). Genetic richness and diversity in Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum reveals major knowledge gaps and a need for the application of “next generation” technologies – research review. . Biotechnol Adv 28:, 17–26. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Katsumata T. , Hosea D. , Wasito E. B. , Kohno S. , Hara K. , Soeparto P. , Ranuh I. G. . ( 1998; ). Cryptosporidiosis in Indonesia: a hospital-based study and a community-based survey. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 59:, 628–632.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Learmonth J. J. , Ionas G. , Ebbett K. A. , Kwan E. S. . ( 2004; ). Genetic characterization and transmission cycles of Cryptosporidium species isolated from humans in New Zealand. . Appl Environ Microbiol 70:, 3973–3978. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Leav B. A. , Mackay M. R. , Anyanwu A. , O’Connor R. M. , Cevallos A. M. , Kindra G. , Rollins N. C. , Bennish M. L. , Nelson R. G. , Ward H. D. . ( 2002; ). Analysis of sequence diversity at the highly polymorphic Cpgp40/15 locus among Cryptosporidium isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in South Africa. . Infect Immun 70:, 3881–3890. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mahdi N. K. , Ali N. H. . ( 2002; ). Cryptosporidiosis among animal handlers and their livestock in Basrah, Iraq. . East Afr Med J 79:, 550–553.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mahgoub E. S. , Almahbashi A. , Abdulatif B. . ( 2004; ). Cryptosporidiosis in children in a north Jordanian paediatric hospital. . East Mediterr Health J 10:, 494–501.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mallon M. E. , MacLeod A. , Wastling J. M. , Smith H. , Tait A. . ( 2003; ). Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium parvum type 2: population genetics and sub-structuring. . Infect Genet Evol 3:, 207–218. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. McLauchlin J. , Amar C. , Pedraza-Díaz S. , Nichols G. L. . ( 2000; ). Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United Kingdom: results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 fecal samples from livestock animals. . J Clin Microbiol 38:, 3984–3990.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Meamar A. R. , Guyot K. , Certad G. , Dei-Cas E. , Mohraz M. , Mohebali M. , Mohammad K. , Mehbod A. A. , Rezaie S. , Rezaian M. . ( 2007; ). Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and animals in Iran. . Appl Environ Microbiol 73:, 1033–1035. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Molloy S. F. , Smith H. V. , Kirwan P. , Nichols R. A. , Asaolu S. O. , Connelly L. , Holland C. V. . ( 2010; ). Identification of a high diversity of Cryptosporidium species genotypes and subtypes in a pediatric population in Nigeria. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:, 608–613. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Peng M. M. , Meshnick S. R. , Cunliffe N. A. , Thindwa B. D. , Hart C. A. , Broadhead R. L. , Xiao L. . ( 2003; ). Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in children in Malawi. . J Eukaryot Microbiol 50: Suppl. 557–559. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pirestani M. , Sadraei J. , Dalimi Asl A. , Zavvar M. , Vaeznia H. . ( 2008; ). Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from human and bovine using 18s rRNA gene in Shahriar county of Tehran, Iran. . Parasitol Res 103:, 467–472. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Spano F. , Putignani L. , Guida S. , Crisanti A. . ( 1998; ). Cryptosporidium parvum: PCR-RFLP analysis of the TRAP-C1 (thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium-1) gene discriminates between two alleles differentially associated with parasite isolates of animal and human origin. . Exp Parasitol 90:, 195–198. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sulaiman I. M. , Xiao L. , Yang C. , Escalante L. , Moore A. , Beard C. B. , Arrowood M. J. , Lal A. A. . ( 1998; ). Differentiating human from animal isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum . . Emerg Infect Dis 4:, 681–685. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sulaiman I. M. , Hira P. R. , Zhou L. , Al-Ali F. M. , Al-Shelahi F. A. , Shweiki H. M. , Iqbal J. , Khalid N. , Xiao L. . ( 2005; ). Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait. . J Clin Microbiol 43:, 2805–2809. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. US EPA (2001). Method 1623: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water by Filtration/IMS/FA, EPA 821-R-01-025, Office of Water. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.
  30. Xiao L. . ( 2010; ). Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update. . Exp Parasitol 124:, 80–89. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Xiao L. , Bern C. , Limor J. , Sulaiman I. , Roberts J. , Checkley W. , Cabrera L. , Gilman R. H. , Lal A. A. . ( 2001; ). Identification of 5 types of Cryptosporidium parasites in children in Lima, Peru. . J Infect Dis 183:, 492–497. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.028001-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.028001-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error