1887

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence factors (, , and ) and phylogenetic relationships [PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)] of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains isolated from four previous cohort studies in 2212 Peruvian children aged <36 months. STEC prevalence was 0.4 % (14/3219) in diarrhoeal and 0.6 % (15/2695) in control samples. None of the infected children developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) or other complications of STEC. was present in 83 % of strains, in 17 %, in 72 %, in 59 % and in 14 %. The most common serotype was O26 : H11 (14 %) and the most common seropathotype was B (45 %). The strains belonged mainly to phylogenetic group B1 (52 %). The distinct combinations of alleles across the seven MLST loci were used to define 13 sequence types among 19 STEC strains. PFGE typing of 20 STEC strains resulted in 19 pulsed-field patterns. Comparison of the patterns revealed 11 clusters (I–XI), each usually including strains belonging to different serotypes; one exception was cluster VI, which gathered exclusively seven strains of seropathotype B, clonal group enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) 2 and phylogenetic group B1. In summary, STEC prevalence was low in Peruvian children with diarrhoea in the community setting. The strains were phylogenetically diverse and associated with mild infections. However, additional studies are needed in children with bloody diarrhoea and HUS.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026666-0
2011-05-01
2020-01-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/5/639.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026666-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Banatvala N. , Griffin P. M. , Greene K. D. , Barrett T. J. , Bibb W. F. , Green J. H. , Wells J. G. . Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Study Collaborators ( 2001; ). The United States National Prospective Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Study: microbiologic, serologic, clinical, and epidemiologic findings. . J Infect Dis 183:, 1063–1070. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bettelheim K. A. . ( 2007; ). The non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic (verocytotoxigenic) Escherichia coli; under-rated pathogens. . Crit Rev Microbiol 33:, 67–87. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beutin L. , Kaulfuss S. , Herold S. , Oswald E. , Schmidt H. . ( 2005; ). Genetic analysis of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serogroup O103 strains by molecular typing of virulence and housekeeping genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. . J Clin Microbiol 43:, 1552–1563. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boerlin P. , McEwen S. A. , Boerlin-Petzold F. , Wilson J. B. , Johnson R. P. , Gyles C. L. . ( 1999; ). Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. . J Clin Microbiol 37:, 497–503.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bruen T. C. , Philippe H. , Bryant D. . ( 2006; ). A simple and robust statistical test for detecting the presence of recombination. . Genetics 172:, 2665–2681. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bryant D. , Moulton V. . ( 2004; ). Neighbor-net: an agglomerative method for the construction of phylogenetic networks. . Mol Biol Evol 21:, 255–265. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Clermont O. , Bonacorsi S. , Bingen E. . ( 2000; ). Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. . Appl Environ Microbiol 66:, 4555–4558. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Coombes B. K. , Wickham M. E. , Mascarenhas M. , Gruenheid S. , Finlay B. B. , Karmali M. A. . ( 2008; ). Molecular analysis as an aid to assess the public health risk of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains. . Appl Environ Microbiol 74:, 2153–2160. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Escobar-Páramo P. , Clermont O. , Blanc-Potard A.-B. , Bui H. , Le Bouguénec C. , Denamur E. . ( 2004; ). A specific genetic background is required for acquisition and expression of virulence factors in Escherichia coli . . Mol Biol Evol 21:, 1085–1094. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gautom R. K. . ( 1997; ). Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for typing of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and other Gram-negative organisms in 1 day. . J Clin Microbiol 35:, 2977–2980.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Girardeau J. P. , Dalmasso A. , Bertin Y. , Ducrot C. , Bord S. , Livrelli V. , Vernozy-Rozand C. , Martin C. . ( 2005; ). Association of virulence genotype with phylogenetic background in comparison to different seropathotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates. . J Clin Microbiol 43:, 6098–6107. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Guion C. E. , Ochoa T. J. , Walker C. M. , Barletta F. , Cleary T. G. . ( 2008; ). Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by use of melting-curve analysis and real-time multiplex PCR. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 1752–1757. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hiruta N. , Murase T. , Okamura N. . ( 2001; ). An outbreak of diarrhoea due to multiple antimicrobial-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 : H11 in a nursery. . Epidemiol Infect 127:, 221–227. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Huson D. H. , Bryant D. . ( 2006; ). Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies. . Mol Biol Evol 23:, 254–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Karmali M. A. , Mascarenhas M. , Shen S. , Ziebell K. , Johnson S. , Reid-Smith R. , Isaac-Renton J. , Clark C. , Rahn K. , Kaper J. B. . ( 2003; ). Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes that are linked to epidemic and/or serious disease. . J Clin Microbiol 41:, 4930–4940. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Louise C. B. , Obrig T. G. . ( 1995; ). Specific interaction of Escherichia coli O157 : H7-derived Shiga-like toxin II with human renal endothelial cells. . J Infect Dis 172:, 1397–1401.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Machado J. , Grimont F. , Grimont P. A. . ( 2000; ). Identification of Escherichia coli flagellar types by restriction of the amplified fliC gene. . Res Microbiol 151:, 535–546. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. McMaster C. , Roch E. A. , Willshaw G. A. , Doherty A. , Kinnear W. , Cheasty T. . ( 2001; ). Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype O26 : H11 outbreak in an Irish crèche. . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:, 430–432. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nataro J. P. , Kaper J. B. . ( 1998; ). Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . . Clin Microbiol Rev 11:, 142–201.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ochoa T. J. , Ecker L. , Barletta F. , Mispireta M. L. , Gil A. I. , Contreras C. , Molina M. , Amemiya I. , Verastegui H. et al. ( 2009; ). Age-related susceptibility to infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among infants from periurban areas in Lima, Peru. . Clin Infect Dis 49:, 1694–1702. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Orskov I. , Orskov F. , Jann B. , Jann K. . ( 1977; ). Serology, chemistry, and genetics of O and K antigens of Escherichia coli . . Bacteriol Rev 41:, 667–710.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Paton J. C. , Paton A. W. . ( 1998; ). Pathogenesis and diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections. . Clin Microbiol Rev 11:, 450–479.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Pond S. L. K. , Frost S. D. W. . ( 2005; ). Datamonkey: rapid detection of selective pressure on individual sites of codon alignments. . Bioinformatics 21:, 2531–2533. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Schmidt H. , Beutin L. , Karch H. . ( 1995; ). Molecular analysis of the plasmid-encoded hemolysin of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 strain EDL 933. . Infect Immun 63:, 1055–1061.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tamura K. , Dudley J. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2007; ). mega4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (mega) software version 4.0. . Mol Biol Evol 24:, 1596–1599. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Vaz T. M. I. , Irino K. , Kato M. A. M. F. , Dias A. M. G. , Gomes T. A. T. , Medeiros M. I. C. , Rocha M. M. M. , Guth B. E. C. . ( 2004; ). Virulence properties and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1976 through 1999. . J Clin Microbiol 42:, 903–905. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Vieira M. A. , Andrade J. R. , Trabulsi L. R. , Rosa A. C. , Dias A. M. , Ramos S. R. , Frankel G. , Gomes T. A. . ( 2001; ). Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Escherichia coli strains of non-enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroups that carry EAE and lack the EPEC adherence factor and Shiga toxin DNA probe sequences. . J Infect Dis 183:, 762–772. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Werber D. , Fruth A. , Liesegang A. , Littmann M. , Buchholz U. , Prager R. , Karch H. , Breuer T. , Tschäpe H. , Ammon A. . ( 2002; ). A multistate outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 : H11 infections in Germany, detected by molecular subtyping surveillance. . J Infect Dis 186:, 419–422. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Yamamoto T. , Echeverria P. . ( 1996; ). Detection of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 gene sequences in enterotoxigenic E. coli strains pathogenic for humans. . Infect Immun 64:, 1441–1445.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ziebell K. , Konczy P. , Yong I. , Frost S. , Mascarenhas M. , Kropinski A. M. , Whittam T. S. , Read S. C. , Karmali M. A. . ( 2008; ). Applicability of phylogenetic methods for characterizing the public health significance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains. . Appl Environ Microbiol 74:, 1671–1675. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026666-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026666-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 5, pp. 639-646

Additional strains used for MLST sequence comparisons. [PDF](15 KB)



PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error