1887

Abstract

A total of 456 non-repetitive isolates from human clinical specimens (urinary, =134; cervix, vagina and prostate, =52; blood, pus and wounds, =45), healthy animals (cattle, =45; poultry, =20) and diseased animals (cattle, =53; swine, =64; poultry, =43) obtained in Lithuania during the period 2005–2008 were studied for trimethoprim (TMP) resistance and the prevalence of genes. A TMP resistance rate in the range of 18–26 % respective to the origin was found in clinical isolates, 23–40 % in isolates from diseased animals and 9–20 % in isolates from healthy animals. Of 112 TMP-resistant isolates, 103 carried at least one of the six genes (, , , , and ) as determined by multiplex PCR and RFLP. The and genes were found most frequently in clinical isolates (17 and 19 isolates, respectively), whilst and genes dominated in isolates of animal origin (25 and 13 isolates, respectively). The , and genes were detected at lower frequencies. The association with class 1/class 2 integrons was confirmed for 73–100 % of genes found in most groups of isolates, except for the isolates from diseased swine. In this group, the majority of -positive isolates (67 %, 8/12) carried (6/12) or genes (2/12) that were not associated with integrons. Non-integron location was also confirmed for the remaining genes (six clinical isolates and one isolate from diseased cattle) and for genes (two isolates from diseased cattle and swine each). All cassette-independent genes were found to be located within the gene. This study on the prevalence and distribution of TMP resistance genes among isolates of human and animal origin in Lithuania demonstrates that genes are carried most frequently as gene cassettes within class 1 and/or class 2 integrons. However, TMP resistance in some of the isolates was found to be mediated by non-integron-associated and genes, indicating the existence of alternative sources for the spread of resistance.

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2010-03-01
2019-11-17
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