1887

Abstract

infection in industrialized countries is often associated with foreign travel. A total of 195 isolates in Japan, isolated from cases associated with foreign travel, were analysed by biotyping and molecular typing using PFGE and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA); their antimicrobial susceptibilities were also evaluated. The isolates were from 26 countries, most of which were Asian. Molecular typing revealed a correlation among the genotypes, biotypes and their geographical areas of origin. The isolates were classified into two biotypes, a and g. Biotype g isolates (=178) were further divided into distinct clusters mainly on the basis of their geographical areas of origin by both PFGE and MLVA. Isolates from South Asian countries constituted one of the distinct clusters. Biotype g isolates from countries other than South Asia constituted other distinct clusters. Most of the isolates from other countries and continents, excluding the South Asian countries, were included in one major cluster by PFGE analysis. However, by MLVA, they were further divided into minor subclusters mainly on the basis of their countries of origin. MLVA was also demonstrated to be useful in molecular epidemiological analysis, even when only seven loci were applied, resulting in a high resolution with Simpson's index of diversity () of 0.993. A core drug-resistance pattern of streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole was observed in 108 isolates, irrespective of their geographical areas of origin, but the frequency of resistance to nalidixic acid was high among the South Asian and East Asian isolates. Two isolates from China and India were resistant to cefotaxime and harboured the and genes, respectively; these isolates were also resistant to nalidixic acid, which is a matter of concern in terms of shigellosis treatment. Use of a combination of methods was found to be effective for epidemiological investigation in the case of infection.

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2009-11-01
2019-11-14
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