1887

Abstract

The conventional adjuvants used in vaccines have limitations like induction of an imbalanced Th1 and Th2 immune response. To overcome this limitation, novel adjuvants and newer forms of existing adjuvants like calcium phosphate nanoparticles are being tested.

Calcium phosphate adjuvanted outer membrane proteins vaccine may work as an efficient, safe and cost effective vaccine against Typhi.

Our goals were to evaluate the potential of calcium phosphate nanoparticles as an adjuvant using outer membrane proteins (Omps) of Typhi as antigens for immune response, with montanide (commercially available adjuvant) as control, and its toxicity in rats.

Calcium phosphate adjuvanted outer membrane proteins nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. The efficacy of vaccine formulation in mice and toxicity assay were carried out in rats.

The calcium phosphate nanoparticles varying in size between 20–50 nm had entrapment efficiency of 41.5% and loading capacity of 54%. The calcium phosphate nanoparticle-Omps vaccine formulation (nanoparticle-Omps) induced a strong humoral immune response, which was significantly higher than the control group for the entire period of study. In the montanide-Omps group the initial very high immune response declined steeply and then remained steady. The immune response induced by nanoparticle-Omps did not change appreciably. The cell mediated immune response as measured by lymphocyte proliferation assay and delayed type hypersensitivity test showed a higher response (<0.01) for the nanoparticles-Omps group as compared to montanide-Omps group. The bacterial clearance assay also showed higher clearance in the nanoparticles-Omps group as compared to montanide-Omps group (approx 1.4%). The toxicity analysis in rats showed no difference in the values of toxicity biomarkers and blood chemistry parameters, revealing vaccine formulation was non-toxic in rats.

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as adjuvant in vaccines is safe, have good encapsulation and loading capacity and induce a strong cell mediated, humoral and protective immune response.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Department of Biotechnology, Government of West Bengal (Award BT/PR796ADB90/116/2011)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MumteshKumar Saxena
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/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001529
2022-04-27
2022-05-18
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