1887

Abstract

The bacterial pathogen, pv. actinidiae (Psa), has emerged as a major threat to kiwifruit cultivation throughout the world. One pandemic strain (from the Psa3 group) has occurred in various geographical regions. It is important to understand how this pathogen is being transmitted.

Although Psa has been found in Korea since 1992, the isolates were until recently of a distinct type (Psa2). Recently, the more virulent Psa3 type has been detected. The purpose of this study was to describe the variety of Psa3 now found in Korea.

Strains were isolated from kiwifruit plants in Korea and from pollen imported into Korea from New Zealand. The genomes of 10 isolates were sequenced using the Illumina platform and compared to the completely assembled genomes of pandemic Psa3 strains from New Zealand and China. Comparisons were also made with pandemic strains from Chile and non-pandemic Psa3 isolates from China.

Six of the 10 Psa3 isolates from Korea show a clear relationship with New Zealand isolates. Two isolates show a distinct relationship to isolates from Chile; one further isolate has a sequence that is highly similar to that of M228, a strain previously isolated in China; and the last isolate belongs to the Psa3 group, but is not a member of the pandemic lineage.

This analysis establishes that there have been multiple routes of transmission of the Psa3 pandemic strain into Korea. One route has involved the importation of pollen from New Zealand. A second route probably involves importation from Chile.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001115
2019-12-20
2020-01-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Biondi EA, Galeone N, Kuzmanovic S, Ardizzi C. Lucchese & A Bertaccini. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae detection in kiwifruit plant tissue and bleeding sap. Ann Appl Biol 2012;162:60–70
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Donati I, Cellini A, Buriani G, Mauri S, Kay C et al. Pathways of flower infection and pollen-mediated dispersion of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker. Hortic Res 2018;5:56 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Gallelli A, Talocci S, L’Aurora A, Loreti S. Detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, from symptomless fruits and twigs, and from pollen. Phytopathol. Mediterr 2011;50:462–472
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Holmes A, Taylor R, Miller S, Dean F, Fitzgerald S et al. Isolation and detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa-V) in kiwifruit green pollen and an evaluation of the ability of Psa-V to survive commercial pollen milling and extractions. PlusGroup Limited Research report to Zespri Group Ltd. Ref 2013;VI:1341
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Kim GH, Kim K-H, Son KI, Choi ED, Lee YS et al. Outbreak and Spread of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3 in Korea. Plant Pathol J 2016;32:545–551 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Stefani E, Giovanardi D. Dissemination of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae through pollen and its epiphytic life on leaves and fruits. Phytopathol. Mediterr 2011;50:489–496
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Tontou R, Giovanardi D, Stefani E. Pollen as a possible pathway for the dissemination of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and bacterial canker of kiwifruit. Phytopathol. Mediterr 2014;53:333–339
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Takikawa Y, Serizawa S, Ichikawa T, Tsuyumu S, Goto M. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae pv. nov.: the causal bacterium of canker of kiwifruit in Japan. Jpn. J. Phytopathol. 1989;55:437–444 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chapman JR, Taylor RK, Weir BS, Romberg MK, Vanneste JL et al. Phylogenetic relationships among global populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Phytopathology 2012;102:1034–1044 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Zhao ZB, Gao XN, Huang QL, Huang LL, Qin HQ et al. Identification and characterization of the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the Shaanxi Province of China. J. Plant Pathol 2013;95:155–162
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Vanneste JL. The scientific, economic, and social impacts of the New Zealand outbreak of bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae). Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017;55:377–399 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Butler M, Jung JS, Kim GH, Lamont I, Stockwell P et al. Genome features of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae recently isolated in Korea. Acta Hortic 2015;1095:75–80 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Koh YJ, Kim GH, Koh HS, Lee YS, Kim S-C et al. Occurrence of a new type of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strain of bacterial canker on kiwifruit in Korea. Plant Pathol J 2012;28:423–427 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kim GH, Jung JS, Koh YJ. Occurrence and epidemics of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in Korea. Plant Pathol J 2017;33:351–361 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hayward AC. A method for characterizing Pseudomonas solanacearum. Nature 1960;186:405–406 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Koh HS, Kim GH, Lee YS, Koh YJ, Jung JS. Molecular characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in Korea and a multiplex PCR assay for haplotype differentiation. Plant Pathol J 2014;30:96–101 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lee YS, Kim GH, Koh YJ, Zhuang Q, Jung JS. Development of specific markers for identification of biovars 1 and 2 strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Plant Pathol J 2016;32:162–167 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Clark HE, Geldrich EF, Kabler PW, Huff CB. Applied Microbiology, 1st Edn. New York: International Book Company; 1958; pp27–53
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chatterjee A, Stockwell PA, Rodger EJ, Morison IM. Comparison of alignment software for genome-wide bisulphite sequence data. Nucleic Acids Res 2012;40:e79 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Poulter RTM, Ho J, Handley T, Taiaroa G, Butler MI. Comparison between complete genomes of an isolate of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from Japan and a New Zealand isolate of the pandemic lineage. Sci Rep 2018;8:10915 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kearse M, Sturrock S, Meintjes P. The Geneious 6.0.3 Read Mapper Auckland, New Zealand: Biomatters, Ltd; 2012b
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ho J, Taiaroa G, Butler MI, Poulter RTM. The Genome Sequence of M228, a Chinese Isolate of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Illustrates Insertion Sequence Element Mobility. Microbiol Resour Announc 2019;8:e01427–18 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Butler MI, Stockwell PA, Black MA, Day RC, Lamont IL et al. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from recent outbreaks of kiwifruit bacterial canker belong to different clones that originated in China. PLoS One 2013;8:e57464 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M et al. Geneious basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 2012a;28:1647–1649 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Aziz RK, Bartels D, Best AA, DeJongh M, Disz T et al. The RAST server: rapid annotations using subsystems technology. BMC Genomics 2008;9:75 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F. MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 2001;17:754–755 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Letunic I, Bork P. Interactive tree of life (iTOL) V3: an online tool for the display and annotation of phylogenetic and other trees. Nucleic Acids Res 2016;44:W242–W245 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gallipoli L, Butler M, Mazzaglia A, Stockwell P, Lamont I et al. Genomic diversity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) in China. Acta Hortic 2015;1095:59–64 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Poulter RTM, Butler MI, Taiaroa G. Resistance to copper in New Zealand PSA isolates -Part II. Report to Zespri International/KVH VI1714. 2017
  30. Zhao M, Butler M, Taiaroa G, Poulter R. Conjugation in Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa). Acta Hortic 2018;1218:327–332 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ma Z, Smith JJ, Zhao Y, Jackson RW, Arnold DL et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of the pPT23A Plasmid Family of Pseudomonas syringae. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73:12871295 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Biondi E, Zamorano A, Vega E, Ardizzi S, Sitta D et al. Draft whole genome sequence analyses on Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae hypersensitive response negative strains detected from kiwifruit bleeding sap samples. Phytopathology 2018;108:552–560 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Butler MI, Mazzaglia A, Gallipoli L, Balestra GM, Poulter RTM. The accessory genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) strains from China, New Zealand, Chile, Italy and Korea. Acta Hortic 2019;1243:1–6 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ciarroni S, Gallipoli L, Taratufolo MC, Butler MI, Poulter RTM et al. Development of a multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) to unravel the intra-pathovar structure of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae populations worldwide. PLoS One 2015;10:e0135310 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. McCann HC, Rikkerink EHA, Bertels F, Fiers M, Lu A et al. Genomic analysis of the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae provides insight into the origins of an emergent plant disease. PLoS Pathog 2013;9:e1003503 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Zhao Z, Chen J, Gao X, Zhang D, Zhang J et al. Comparative genomics reveal pathogenicity-related loci in Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3. Mol Plant Pathol 2019;20:923–942 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001115
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001115
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error