1887

Abstract

Purpose. Enteroviruses (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus A (CVA) 16 are the most prevalent EV serotypes responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Nevertheless, CVA6 was found to be the leading cause of HFMD in the Nanjing area, of China in 2013. This study aims to provide insights into the occurrence of the emergent recombinant CVA6 through examination of the evolutionary history and the involved recombination events.

Methodology. The viral protein1 (VP1) and non-structural (NS) 2C and 3D of 28 Nanjing CVA6 strains were aligned, among which the full-length sequences of eight strains were further characterized.

Results. We revealed the co-existence of two recombinant forms (RFs), RF-A and RF-J, in the local area. RF-J is a novel RF group, comprising a proportion of local and Shanghai CVA6 strains from 2013. The appearance of RF-J CVA6 strains was most likely the result of two recombination events, with the co-circulating CVA4 and CVA8 providing the regions beyond positions 4001~4045 and 4866~4873, respectively. Evolutionary history analysis showed that the VP1 sequences of RF-J derived from RF-A, which was also probably the ancestor of several other RF groups. The 3D region of RF-J was closely related to CVA8. The point in time of emergence of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of RF-J in China was estimated to be around 2011 in both terms of VP1 and 3D region.

Conclusion. The emerging recombinant CVA6 variants belong to a novel RF-J group which was most likely formed by at least two recombination events. Continued monitoring on the geographical distribution of various CVA6 RFs is essential.

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/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000780
2018-06-27
2019-10-22
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