1887

Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) and are pathogens with oncogenic potential associated with persistent infections. Epidemiological data on infection status, /HPV co-infection and the relationship between HPV genotypes in Italian women are only preliminary. The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between HPV genotypes and in an extending cohort of asymptomatic immunocompetent women from an area of north-east Italy. A retrospective study was conducted using Luminex technology on cervical swabs from asymptomatic immunocompetent women, comprising 921 attending the prevention centre for the Cervical Cancer Program and 6214 who had been referred to the Sexually Transmitted Infections Center, with clinical indications of HPV and infections. A quantitative real-time PCR was performed to assess chronic infection by heat-shock protein 60 () gene expression. The overall prevalence of the investigated pathogens was 39 % (359/921) for HPV and 4 % (251/6214) for . The gene was detected in 57 % of the women infected with . HPV co-infection was present in 58 % of -infected women. A high prevalence of co-infection was found in women with chronic infection (68 %,  = 0.0002), especially in women ≤ 25 years (72 %) where HPV multiple infections were found in 78 % ( = 0.022). HPV genotype distribution showed that uncommon low-risk genotypes were associated with . These results indicate a high frequency of co-detection of multiple HPV genotypes in chronically infected young women and suggest that the expression of the gene may favour HPV infection.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000245
2016-05-01
2021-07-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/65/5/406.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000245&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Agarossi A., Ferrazzi E., Parazzini F., Perno C. F., Ghisoni L. 2009; Prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in women undergoing voluntary cervical cancer screening in Italy. J Med Virol 81:529–535 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ault K. A. 2006; Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections in the female genital tract. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2006:(Suppl.)40470 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bellaminutti S., Seraceni S., De Seta F., Gheit T., Tommasino M., Comar M. 2014; HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis co-detection in young asymptomatic women from high incidence area for cervical cancer. J Med Virol 86:1920–1925 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bhatla N., Puri K., Joseph E., Kriplani A., Iyer V. K., Sreenivas V. 2013; Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia – a pilot study. Indian J Med Res 137:533–539[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bianchi S., Frati E. R., Panatto D., Martinelli M., Amicizia D., Zotti C. M., Martinese M., Bonanni P., Boccalini S., other authors. 2013; Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in urine samples from unvaccinated male and female adolescents in Italy. PLoS One 8:e79719 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bosch F. X., Broker T. R., Forman D., Moscicki A. B., Gillison M. L., Doorbar J., Stern P. L., Stanley M., Arbyn M., other authors. 2013; Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases. Vaccine 31:(Suppl. 7)H1–H31 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brankatschk R., Bodenhausen N., Zeyer J., Bürgmann H. 2012; Simple absolute quantification method correcting for quantitative PCR efficiency variations for microbial community samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4481–4489 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cappello F., Conway de Macario E., Di Felice V., Zummo G., Macario A. J. 2009; Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin. PLoS Pathog 5:e1000552 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Carozzi F., De Marco L., Gillio-Tos A., Del Mistro A., Girlando S., Baboci L., Trevisan M., Burroni E., Grasso S., other authors. 2014; Age and geographic variability of human papillomavirus high-risk genotype distribution in a large unvaccinated population and of vaccination impact on HPV prevalence. J Clin Virol 60:257–263 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Castle P. E., Escoffery C., Schachter J., Rattray C., Schiffman M., Moncada J., Sugai K., Brown C., Cranston B., other authors. 2003; Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 2, and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 are not associated with grade of cervical neoplasia in Jamaican colposcopy patients. Sex Transm Dis 30:575–580 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Comar M., Iannacone M. R., Casalicchio G., McKay-Chopin S., Tommasino M., Gheit T. 2012; Comparison of hybrid capture II, linear array, and a bead-based multiplex genotyping assay for detection of human papillomavirus in women with negative pap test results and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. J Clin Microbiol 50:4041–4046 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Comparetto C., Borruto F. 2015; Cervical cancer screening: a never-ending developing program. World J Clin Cases 3:614–624[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Contini C., Seraceni S. 2012; Chlamydial disease: a crossroad between chronic infection and development of cancer. [View Article] In Bacteria and Cancer pp 79–116 Edited by Khan A. A. Switzerland: Springer Science+Business Media BV;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Contini C., Seraceni S., Cultrera R., Incorvaia C., Sebastiani A., Picot S. 2005; Evaluation of a Real-time PCR-based assay using the lightcycler system for detection of Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite genes in blood specimens from patients with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Int J Parasitol 35:275–283 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Contini C., Grilli A., Badia L., Guardigni V., Govoni M., Seraceni S. 2011; Detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae in patients with arthritis: significance and diagnostic value. Rheumatol Int 31:1307–1313 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. de Paula F. D., Fernandes A. P., Carmo B. B., Vieira D. C., Dutra M. S., Santos C. G., Souza M. C., Andrade T. C., Vago A. R., Fernandes P. A. 2007; Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV infections in cervical samples with normal and abnormal cytopathological findings. Diagn Cytopathol 35:198–202 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. de Sanjosé S., Diaz M., Castellsagué X., Clifford G., Bruni L., Muñoz N., Bosch F. X. 2007; Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 7:453–459 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dean D., Kandel R. P., Adhikari H. K., Hessel T. 2008; Multiple Chlamydiaceae species in trachoma: implications for disease pathogenesis and control. PLoS Med 5:e14 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Deluca G. D., Basiletti J., Schelover E., Vásquez N. D., Alonso J. M., Marín H. M., Lucero R. H., Picconi M. A. 2011; Chlamydia trachomatis as a probable cofactor in human papillomavirus infection in aboriginal women from northeastern Argentina. Braz J Infect Dis 15:567–572 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Eggleston E., Rogers S. M., Turner C. F., Miller W. C., Roman A. M., Hobbs M. M., Erbelding E., Tan S., Villarroel M. A., Ganapathi L. 2011; Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 15- to 35-year-olds in Baltimore, MD. Sex Transm Dis 38:743–749[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Giorgi Rossi P., Chini F., Bisanzi S., Burroni E., Carillo G., Lattanzi A., Angeloni C., Scalisi A., Macis R., other authors. 2011; Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy. Infect Agent Cancer 6:2–8 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 2012; Biological agents: a review of human carcinogens. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans vol. 100B1–441 Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Idahl A., Lundin E., Elgh F., Jurstrand M., Møller J. K., Marklund I., Lindgren P., Ottander U. 2010; Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, genitalium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus, and polyomavirus are not detectable in human tissue with epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor, or benign conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202:e1–e6[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jensen K. E., Thomsen L. T., Schmiedel S., Frederiksen K., Norrild B., van den Brule A., Iftner T., Kjær S. K. 2014; Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection: a cohort study. Sex Transm Infect 90:550–555 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lehtinen M., Ault K. A., Lyytikainen E., Dillner J., Garland S. M., Ferris D. G., Koutsky L. A., Sings H. L., Lu S., other authors. 2011; Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Sex Transm Infect 87:372–376 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ljubin-Sternak S., Meštrović T. 2014; Chlamydia trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas: pathogens with an impact on human reproductive health. J Pathogens 2014:183167 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Luostarinen T., Namujju P. B., Merikukka M., Dillner J., Hakulinen T., Koskela P., Paavonen J., Surcel H. M., Lehtinen M. 2013; Order of HPV/Chlamydia infections and cervical high-grade precancer risk: a case–cohort study. Int J Cancer 133:1756–1759 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Malinverni R. 1996; The role of cytokines in chlamydial infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 9:150–155 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Naucler P., Chen H. C., Persson K., You S. L., Hsieh C. Y., Sun C. A., Dillner J., Chen C. J. 2007; Seroprevalence of human papillomaviruses and Chlamydia trachomatis and cervical cancer risk: nested case–control study. J Gen Virol 88:814–822 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Oakeshott P., Aghaizu A., Reid F., Howell-Jones R., Hay P. E., Sadiq S. T., Lacey C. J., Beddows S., Soldan K. 2012; Frequency and risk factors for prevalent, incident, and persistent genital carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection in sexually active women: community based cohort study. BMJ 344:e4168 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Paavonen J. 2012; Chlamydia trachomatis infections of the female genital tract: state of the art. Ann Med 44:18–28 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Panatto D., Amicizia D., Bianchi S., Frati E. R., Zotti C. M., Lai P. L., Domnich A., Colzani D., Gasparini R., Tanzi E. 2015; Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology. Hum Vaccin Immunother 11:270–276 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Piana A., Sotgiu G., Cocuzza C., Musumeci R., Marras V., Pischedda S., Deidda S., Muresu E., Castiglia P. 2013; High HPV-51 prevalence in invasive cervical cancers: results of a pre-immunization survey in North Sardinia, Italy. PLoS One 8:e63395 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Quint K. D., de Koning M. N., Geraets D. T., Quint W. G., Pirog E. C. 2009; Comprehensive analysis of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis in in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 114:390–394 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Seraceni S., De Seta F., Colli C., Del Savio R., Pesel G., Zanin V., D'Agaro P., Contini C., Comar M. 2014; High prevalence of HPV multiple genotypes in women with persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Infect Agent Cancer 9:30 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Shew M. L., Ermel A. C., Weaver B. A., Tong Y., Tu W., Kester L. M., Denski C., Fortenberry J. D., Brown D. R. 2013; Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with redetection of human papillomavirus after apparent clearance. J Infect Dis 208:1416–1421 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Silins I., Ryd W., Strand A., Wadell G., Törnberg S., Hansson B. G., Wang X., Arnheim L., Dahl V., other authors. 2005; Chlamydia trachomatis infection and persistence of human papillomavirus. Int J Cancer 116:110–115 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Silva J., Cerqueira F., Ribeiro J., Sousa H., Osório T., Medeiros R. 2013; Is Chlamydia trachomatis related to human papillomavirus infection in young women of southern European population? A self-sampling study. Arch Gynecol Obstet 288:627–633 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Silva J., Cerqueira F., Medeiros R. 2014; Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet 289:715–723 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Simonetti A. C., Humberto de Lima Melo J., Eleutério de Souza P. R., Bruneska D., Luiz de Lima Filho J. 2009; Immunological's host profile for HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis, a cervical cancer cofactor. Microbes Infect 11:435–442 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Soper D. E. 2010; Pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol 116:419–428 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tavares M. C., de Macêdo J. L., de Lima Júnior S. F., de Andrade Heráclio S., Amorim M. M., de Mascena Diniz Maia M., de Souza P. R. 2014; Chlamydia trachomatis infection and human papillomavirus in women with cervical neoplasia in Pernambuco-Brazil. Mol Biol Rep 41:865–874 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tommasino M. 2014; The human papillomavirus family and its role in carcinogenesis. Semin Cancer Biol 26:13–21 [View Article] (Review). [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Vidhani S., Mehta S., Bhalla P., Bhalla R., Sharma V. K., Batra S. 2005; Seroprevalence of Chalmydia trachomatis infection amongst patients with pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility. J Commun Dis 37:233–238[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Vriend H. J., Bogaards J. A., van Bergen J. E., Brink A. A., van den Broek I. V., Hoebe C. J., King A. J., van der Sande M. A., Wolffs P. F., de Melker H. E., Medical Microbiological Laboratories and the CSI group. 2015; Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection. Cancer Med 4:1589–1598 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000245
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000245
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error