Groups of mice were immunised against with heatkilled (HK) and acetone-killed (AK) vaccines or with their ultrasonic or Mickledisintegrated forms and subsequently challenged by the oral or intraperitoneal routes. All six vaccine preparations conferred statistically significant protection against intraperitoneal challenge as measured by reduced mortality, lowered infection rate and prolonged survival. Of the six vaccines, only the Mickledisintegrated HK vaccine significantly reduced the mortality rate of mice challenged by the oral route.

Filtered bacteria-free extracts of homogenates of infected mouse liver conferred active immunity against a massive intraperitoneal challenge, but similar extracts of normal liver or of spleen from normal or infected animals were without effect.


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