1887

Abstract

The prevalence of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) production in strains isolated from patients with septicaemia, and the serum antibody response in relation to toxin production of each isolate, were investigated. Among 63 strains of isolated from the blood of patients with septicaemia, 51 from patients with superficial wounds and 49 from nasal carriers, 50-60% produced at least one of the enterotoxins A—D or TSST-1. The most frequent toxins produced were enterotoxins A and C and TSST-1. Among the 63 patients with staphylococcal septicaemia, 51 (81%) had a significant rise or a high antibody titre, or both, to at least one of the toxins. A positive serological response to toxin A was found in 78%, to enterotoxin B in 83%, to enterotoxin C in 80%, to enterotoxin D in 86% and to TSST-1 in 92% of the patients from whom the isolated strain produced the respective toxin. Antibodies against enterotoxins A, B, C and D and TSST-1 were also seen in 35%, 16%, 32%, 59% and 10%, respectively, in patients infected by strains that did not produce the specific toxin. Immunological cross-reactions between the toxins were demonstrated both in hyperimmune sera obtained from rabbits and in patients’ sera, particularly between enterotoxins B and C. It is concluded that these potent toxins with superantigenic properties are produced during septicaemia. No differences with regard to enterotoxin or TSST-1 production or antibody response were noted between patients with complicated uncomplicated septicaemia.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-44-3-171
1996-03-01
2022-08-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/44/3/medmicro-44-3-171.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-44-3-171&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Shah M., Watanakunakom C. Changing patterns of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Am J Med Sci 1979; 278:115–121
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Frimodt-Møller N., Espersen F., Rosdahl V. T., Bentzon M. W., Skinhoj P. Epidemiological aspects of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Denmark during 30 years from 1957–1987. In Möllby R., Flock J. I., Nord C. E., Christensson B. (eds) Staphylococci and staphylococcal infections Stuttgart: Gustav Fischers Verlag; 19949–11
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Tranter H. S. Foodbome staphylococcal illness. Lancet 1990; 336:1044–1046
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Parsonnet J. Mediators in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome: overview. Rev Infect Dis 1989; 11: Suppl 1S263–S269
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Todd J., Fishaut M. Toxic-shock syndrome associated with phage-group I Staphylococci. Lancet 1978; 2:1116–1118
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Alber G., Hammer D. K., Fleischer B. Relationship between enterotoxic- and T lymphocyte-stimulating activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin B. J Immunol 1990; 144:4501–4506
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Andersson J., Nagy S., Björk L., Abrams J., Holm S., Andersson U. Bacterial toxin-induced cytokine production studied at the single-cell level. Immunol Rev 1992; 127:69–96
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fischer H., Dohlsten M., Andersson U. Production of TNF-α and TNF-β by staphylococcal enterotoxin A activated human T cells. J Immunol 1990; 144:4663–4669
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fleischer B., Schrezenmeier H., Conradt P. T lymphocyte activation by staphylococcal enterotoxins: role of class II molecules and T cell surface structures. Cell Immunol 1989; 120:92–101
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jupin C., Anderson S., Damais C., Alouf J. E., Parant M. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 as an inducer of human tumor necrosis factors and γ interferon. J Exp Med 1988; 167:752–761
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Parsonnet J., Hickman R. K., Eardley D. D., Pier G. B. Induction of human interleukin-1 by toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1. J Infect Dis 1985; 151:514–522
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Johnson H. M., Russell J. K., Pontzer C. H. Staphylococcal enterotoxin microbial superantigens. FASEB J 1991; 5:2706–2712
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kappler J., Kotzin B., Herron L. V β-specific stimulation of human T cells by staphylococcal toxins. Science 1989; 244:811–813
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Marrack P., Kappler J. The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science 1990; 248:705–711
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mollick J. A., Cook R. G., Rich R. R. Class II MHC molecules are specific receptors for Staphylococcus enterotoxin A. Science 1989; 244:817–820
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Uchiyama T., Imanishi K., Saito S. Activation of human T cells by toxic shock syndrome toxin-1: the toxin-binding structures expressed on human lymphoid cells acting as accessory cells are HLA class II molecules. Eur J Immunol 1989; 19:1803–1809
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Naidu A. S., Voros S., Loczi G., Kienle Z., Brasch B., Emody L. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production in staphylococcal infections and serological implications with patients and healthy controls. Acta Microbiol Hung 1989; 36:19–24
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Vischer W. A., Stalder H., Faupel D. M. Frequency of toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the Basel region. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1985; 115:1196–1199
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Pozhar P. F., Akatov A. K., Ratgauz G. L., Fluer F. S., Atopek S. Ia. The frequency of the production of toxic-shock exotoxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in the USSR (In Russian). Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1989(8)3–5
    [Google Scholar]
  20. von Reyn C. F., Levy B. S., Arbeit R. D., Friedland G., Crumpacker C. S. Infective endocarditis: an analysis based on strict case definitions. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94:505–518
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Humphreys H., Keane C. T., Hone R. Enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cases of septicaemia and from healthy carriers. J Med Microbiol 1989; 28:163–172
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kunstmann G., Schroder E., Hasbach H., Pulverer G. Immune response to toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and to staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B and C in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Int J Med Microbiol 1989; 271:486–492
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Christensson B., Hedström S. Å. Biochemical and biological properties of Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia strains in relation to clinical characteristics. Scand J Infect Dis 1986; 18:297–303
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Moseley A. B., Huston D. P. Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin A inhibition of Ig production by human B cells. J Immunol 1991; 146:826–832
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Edwin C., Tatini S. R., Maheswaran S. K. Specificity and cross-reactivity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A monoclonal antibodies with enterotoxins B, Cl, D, and E. Appl Environ Microbiol 1986; 52:1253–1257
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Thompson N. E., Ketterhagen M. J., Bergdoll M. S. Monoclonal antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C: crossreactivity and localization of epitopes on tryptic fragments. Infect Immun 1984; 45:281–285
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-44-3-171
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-44-3-171
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error