1887
Preview this article:

There is no abstract available.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-43-4-239
1995-10-01
2022-12-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/43/4/medmicro-43-4-239.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-43-4-239&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lo S.-C., Dawson M. S., Wang D. M. Identification of Mycoplasma incognitus infection in patients with AIDS: an immuno-histochemical, in situ hybridization and ultrastructural study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989; 41:601–616
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bauer F. A., Wear D. J., Angritt P., Lo S.-C. Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) infection in the kidneys of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and associated nephropathy: a light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study. Hum Pathol 1991; 22:63–69
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Taylor-Robinson D., Davies H. A., Saranthchandra P., Furr P. M. Intracellular location of mycoplasmas in cultured cells demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Int J Exp Pathol 1991; 72:705–714
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Franzoso G., Dimitrov D., , S. Blumenthal R., Barile M., , F. Rottem S. Fusion of Mycoplasma fermentans strain incognitus with T-lymphocytes. FEBS Lett 1992; 303:251–254
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Lo S.-C., Hayes M. M., Tully J. G. Mycoplasma penetrans sp. nov., from the urogenital tract of patients with AIDS. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1992; 42:357–364
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Phillips D. M., Pearce-Pratt R., Tan X., Zacharopoulos V. R. Association of mycoplasma with HIV-1 and HTLV-1 in human T lymphocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992; 8:1863–1868
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Lo S.-C., Tsai S., Benish J. R., Shih J. W.-K., Wear D. J., Wong D. M. Enhancement of HIV-1 cytocidal effects in CD4+ lymphocytes by the AIDS-associated mycoplasma. Science 1991; 251:1074–1076
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Montagnier L. AIDS pathogenesis. Biochemist 1990; 13:3–7
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Lemaitre M., Henin Y., Destouesse F., Ferrieux C., Montagnier L. Blanchard A. Role of mycoplasma infection in the cytopathic effect induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in infected cell lines. Infect Immun 1992; 60:742–748
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Moore P. S., Hierholzer J., Dewitt W. Respiratory viruses and mycoplasmas as cofactors for epidemic group-A meningococcal meningitis. JAMA 1990; 264:1271–1275
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hierholzer J. C., Moore P., Broome C. V. Mycoplasma and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis. JAMA 1991; 265:212
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Sherman K. J., Daling J. R., Stergachis A. Sexually transmitted diseases and tubal pregnancy. Sex Transm Dis 1990; 17:115–121
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hahn D. L., Dodge R. W., Golubjatnikov R. Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR) infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis, and adult-onset asthma. JAMA 1991; 266:225–230
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Sibille Y., Reynolds H. Y. Macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils in lung defense and injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 141:471–501
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Howard C. J., Taylor G. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity. In Razin S., Barile M. F. (eds) The mycoplasmas vol 4 Mycoplasma pathogenicity London: Academic Press; 1985259–292
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Howard C. J., Taylor G. Interaction of mycoplasmas and phagocytes. Yale J Biol Med 1983; 56:643–648
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cole B. C., Naot Y., Stanbridge E. J., Wise K. S. Interactions of mycoplasmas and their products with lymphoid cells in vitro. In Razin S., Barile M. F. (eds) The mycoplasmas vol 4 Mycoplasma pathogenicity London: Academic Press; 1985203–257
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cassell G. H., Lindsey J. R., Overcash R. G., Baker H. J. Murine mycoplasma respiratory disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1973; 225:395–412
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lindsey J. R., Cassell G. H. Experimental Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in pathogen-free mice. Models for studying mycoplasmosis of the respiratory tract. Am J Pathol 1973; 72:63–90
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cole B. C., Washburn L. R., Taylor-Robinson D. Mycoplasma-induced arthritis. In Razin S., Barile M. F. (eds) The mycoplasmas vol 4 Mycoplasma pathogenicity London: Academic Press; 1985107–160
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cassell G. H., Clyde W. A., Davis J. K. Mycoplasma respiratory infections. In Razin S., Barile M. F. (eds) The mycoplasmas vol 4 Mycoplasma pathogenicity London: Academic Press; 198566–99
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cassell G. H., Lindsey J. R., Baker H. J. Immune response of pathogen-free mice inoculated intranasally with Mycoplasma pulmonis. J Immunol 1974; 112:124–136
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Taylor G. Taylor-Robinson D. The part played by cell-mediated immunity to mycoplasma respiratory infections. Dev Biol Stand 1975; 28:195–210
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Brownlie J., Howard C. J., Gourlay R. N. Pathogenicity of certain Mycoplasma species in the bovine mammary gland. Res Vet Sci 1976; 20:261–266
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Brownlie J., Howard C. J., Gourlay R. N. The effect of an intramammary infusion of endotoxin on experimentally induced mycoplasma mastitis. J Hyg 1979; 83:501–505
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Howard C. J., Taylor G. Variation in the virulence of strains of Mycoplasma pulmonis related to susceptibility to killing by macrophages in vivo. J Gen Microbiol 1979; 114:289–294
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Taylor G., Howard C. J. Interaction of Mycoplasma pulmonis with mouse peritoneal macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Med Microbiol 1980; 13:19–30
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Davis J. K., Parker R. F., White H. Strain differences in susceptibility to murine respiratory mycoplasmosis in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice. Infect Immun 1985; 50:647–654
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Thomas L. H., Howard C. J., Stott E. J., Parsons K. R. Mycoplasma bovis infection in gnotobiotic calves and combined infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Vet Pathol 1986; 23:571–578
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Simecka J. W., Davis J. K., Cassell G. H. Specific vs. nonspecific immune responses in murine respiratory mycoplasmosis. Isr J Med Sci 1987; 23:485–189
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Davidson M. K., Davis J. K., Lindsey J. R., Cassell G. H. Clearance of different strains of Mycoplasma pulmonis from the respiratory tract of C3H/HeN mice. Infect Immun 1988; 56:2163–2168
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Simecka J. W., Davis J. K., Cassell G. H. Serum antibody does not account for differences in the severity of chronic respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pulmonis in LEW and F344 rats. Infect Immun 1989; 57:3570–3575
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Meier B., Binder A., Herold S. Demonstration of substances with activating, chemotactic and aggregating properties for PMNs released by Mycoplasma arthritidis. Int J Med Microbiol 1990; 274: Suppl 20593–597
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Komatsu S. Eosinophil chemotaxis to Mpneumoniae. IOM Lett 1990; 1:322–323
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Davis J. K., Parker R. F., Davidson M. K., Cassell G. H., Lindsey R. L. Pulmonary clearance of Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice. Int J Med Microbiol 1990; 274: Suppl 20819–822
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Davidson M. K., Davis J. K., Cassell G. H., Lindsey J. R. Variation in virulence mechanisms of Mycoplasma pulmonis. IOM Lett 1990; 1:195–196
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Davis J. K., Davidson M. K., Schoeb T. R. Intrapulmonary killing of Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice. IOM Lett 1990; 1:347–348
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Davis J. K., Davidson M. K., Schoeb T. R. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis: a model to study effects of oxidants. Res Rep Health Eff Inst 1991; 47:1–43
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Davis J. K., Davidson M. K., Schoeb T. R., Lindsey J. R. Decreased intrapulmonary killing of Mycoplasma pulmonis after short-term exposure to NO2 is associated with damaged alveolar macrophages. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145:406–411
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ross S. E., Simecka J. W., Gambill G. P., Davis J. K., Cassell G. H. Mycoplasma pulmonis possesses a novel chemoattractant for B lymphocytes. Infect Immun 1992; 60:669–674
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kaklamani E., Karalis D., Kaklamanis P. The effect of Mycoplasma arthritidis infection on the phagocytic activity of macrophages in rats and mice. FEMS Microbiol Immunol 1991; 3:151–158
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kaklamani E., Karalis D., Koumandaki Y. The effect of Mycoplasma arthritidis infection on the kinetics of colloidal clearance in mice. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993; 6:299–305
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lai W. C., Linton G., Bennett M., Pakes S. P. Genetic control of resistance to Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in mice. Infect Immun 1993; 61:4615–4621
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ohlsson A., Wang E., Vearncombe M. Leukocyte counts and colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum in preterm neonates. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: Suppl 1S144–S147
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Lai W. C., Bennett M., Pakes S. P. Resistance to Mycoplasma pulmonis mediated by activated natural killer cells. J Infect Dis 1990; 161:1269–1275
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lai W. C., Pakes S. P., Lu Y. S., Brayton C. F. Mycoplasma pulmonis infection augments natural killer cell activity in mice. J Lab Anim Sci 1987; 37:299–303
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lai W. C., Bennett M., Pakes S. P. Mycoplasma pulmonis infection activates natural killer cells, which help inactivate Mycoplasma pulmonis organisms. Int J Med Microbiol 1990; 274: Suppl 20709–712
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lai W. C., Bennett M., Pakes S. P. Modulation of natural killer cell function and delayed type hypersensitivity responses in mice infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis. IOM Lett 1990; 1:131–132
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Parker R. F., Davis J. K., Blalock D. K., Thorp R. B., Simecka J. W., Cassell G. H. Pulmonary clearance of Mycoplasma pulmonis in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice. Infect Immun 1987; 55:2631–2635
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Krausse R., Ullman U., Wagener C. In vitro influence of mycoplasma species on the stimulation of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 1988; 270:228–236
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Webster A. D., Furr P. M., Hughes-Jones N. C., Gorick B. D., Taylor-Robinson D. Critical dependence on antibody for defence against mycoplasmas. Cl Exp Immunol 1988; 71:383–387
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Simberkoff M. S., Elsbach P. The interaction in vitro between polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mycoplasma. J Exp Med 1971; 134:1417–1430
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Cole B. C., Ward J. R. Interaction of Mycoplasma arthritidis and other mycoplasmas with murine peritoneal macrophages. Infect Immun 1973; 7:691–699
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Howard C. J., Taylor G., Collins J., Gourlay R. N. Interaction of Mycoplasma dispar and Mycoplasma agalactiae subspbovis with bovine alveolar macrophages and bovine lacteal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect Immun 1976; 14:11–17
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Parkinson C. F Carter P. B. Phagocytosis of Mycoplasma salivarium by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. Infect Immun 1975; 11:405–414
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Bredt W. Phagocytosis by macrophages of Mycoplasma pneumoniae after opsonization by complement. Infect Immun 1975; 12:694–695
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Zucker-Franklin D., Davidson M., Thomas L. The interaction of mycoplasmas with mammalian cells. I. HeLa cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils. J Exp Med 1966; 124:521–532 (+ plates 39–13)
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zucker-Franklin D., Davidson M., Thomas L. The interaction of mycoplasmas with mammalian cells. II. Monocytes and lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1966; 124:533–542 (+ plates 44–51)
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Marshall A. J. An in vitro study of the role of phagocytosis and serum factors in cellular and humoral immunity to mycoplasma infection. PhD Thesis University of London: 1992
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Barile M. F., Yoshida H., Roth H. Rheumatoid arthritis: new findings on the failure to isolate or detect mycoplasmas by multiple cultivation or serologic procedures and a review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13:571–582
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Busolo F., Tonellato L., Scremin L., Tonin E., Bertolini G., Franceschi C. Phagocytosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Acholeplasma laidlawii measured as inhibition of [H-3] uridine uptake by macrophages. J Immuno Methods 1986; 90:235–240
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Powell D. A., Clyde W. A. Opsonin-reversible resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to in vitro phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 1975; 11:540–550
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kist M., Jacobs E., Bredt W. Release of Mycoplasma pneumoniae substances after phagocytosis by Guinea Pig alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 1982; 36:357–362
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Thomsen A. C., Heron I. Effect of mycoplasmas on phagocytosis and immunocompetence in rats. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scandi [C] 1979; 87:67–71
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Powell D. A., Muse K. A. Scanning electron microscopy of guinea pig alveolar macrophages: in vitro phagocytosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Lab Invest 1977; 37:535–543
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Jones T. C., Hirsch J. G. The interaction in vitro of Mycoplasma pulmonis with mouse peritoneal macrophages and L-cells. J Exp Med 1971; 133:231–259
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Jones T. C., Yeh S., Hirsch J. G. Studies on attachment and ingestion phases of phagocytosis of Mycoplasma pulmonis by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1972; 139:464–470
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Organick A. B., Siegesmund K. A., Lutsky I. I. Pneumonia due to mycoplasma in gnotobiotic mice. II. Localization of Mycoplasma pulmonis in the lungs of infected gnotobiotic mice by electron microscopy. J Bacteriol 1966; 92:1164–1176
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Jones T. C., Minick R. C., Yang L. Attachment and ingestion of mycoplasmas by mouse macrophages. II. Scanning electron microscopic observations. Am J Pathol 1977; 87:347–358
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Al-Kaissi A., Alley M. R. Electron microscopic studies of the interaction between ovine alveolar macrophages and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in vitro. Vet Microbiol 1983; 8:577–584
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Jones T. C., Yang L. Attachment and ingestion of mycoplasmas by mouse macrophages. I. Kinetics of the interaction and effects on phagocyte glucose metabolism. Am J Pathol 1977; 87:331–345
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Thomas C. B., van Ess P., Wolfgram L. J. O., Riebe P., Sharp P., Schultz R. D. Adherence to bovine neutrophils and suppression of neutrophil chemiluminescence by Mycoplasma bovis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1991; 27:365–381
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Ferronha M. H., Correia I., Trindade H., Carvalho M. H., Sousa Ferreira H. Does Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides activate bovine phagocytes by inducing the oxidative burst?. IOM Lett 1994; 3:645–646
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Marshall A., Miles R. J., Richards L. Contrasting effects of Mycoplasma fermentans and M felis on the viability and chemiluminescence response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1993; 109:167–171
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Davis J. K., Delozier K. M., Asa K., Minion F. C., Cassell G. H. Interactions between murine alveolar macrophages and Mycoplasma pulmonis in vitro. Infect Immun 1980; 29:590–599
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Erb P., Bredt W. Interaction of Mycoplasma pneumoniae with alveolar macrophages: viability of adherent and ingested mycoplasmas. Infect Immun 1979; 25:11–15
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Peterhans E., Bertoni G., Koppel P., Wyler R., Keller R. Antibody-free target cells stimulate chemiluminescence in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: an artifact due to mycoplasma contamination. Eur J Immunol 1984; 14:201–203
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Krausse R., Franke S., Ullmann U. Granulocytes response to Uurealyticum: stimulation and killing. IOM Lett 1990; 1:324–325
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Marshall A. J., Miles R. J., Richards L. The resistance of mycoplasmas to phagocytosis and serum killing. IOM Lett 1990; 1:54–55
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Lo S. C., Dawson M. S., Newton P. B. Association of the virus like infectious agent originally reported in patients with AIDS with acute fatal disease in previously healthy nonAIDS patients. Am J Prop Med Hyg 1989; 41:364–376
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Lo S. C., Dawson M. S., Wang D. M. Identification of Mycoplasma incognitus infection in patients with AIDS: an immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization and ultrastructural study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989; 41:601–616
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Pirt S. J. The principles of microbe and cell cultivation London: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 197522–29
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Jones A. S., Tittensor J. R., Walker R. T. The chemical composition of the nucleic acids and other macromolecular constituents of Mycoplasma mycoides var. capri J Gen Microbiol 1965; 40:405–411
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Schiefer H.-G., Gerhardt U., Brunner H., Krvipe M. Studies with lectins on the surface carbohydrate structures of mycoplasma membranes. J Bacteriol 1974; 120:81–88
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Henderson C. L., Miles R. J. Growth of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides in chemostat culture: effect of growth rate upon cell structure. Int J Med Microbiol 1990; 274: Suppl 20945–947
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Jacobs E. Mycoplasma pneumoniae virulence factors and the immune response. Rev Med Microbiol 1991; 2:83–90
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Hayashi K., Lee D. A., Quie P. G. Chemiluminescent response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in suspension and adhered to glass. Infect Immun 1986; 52:397–400
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Gallin J. I. Human neutrophil heterogeneity exists, but is it meaningful?. Blood 1984; 63:977–983
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Gargan R. A., Brumfitt W., Hamilton-Miller J. M. T. Pre-opsonisation of Escherichia coli induces resistance to neutrophil killing in serum and urine: relationship to growth phase. J Med Microbiol 1991; 35:12–17
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Taylor-Robinson D., Schorlemmer H. U., Furr P. M., Allison A. C. Macrophage secretion and the complement cleavage product C3a in the pathogenesis of infections by mycoplasmas and L-forms of bacteria and in immunity to these organisms. Clin Exp Immunol 1978; 33:486–494
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lemke H., Krausse R., Lorenzen J., Havsteen B. Mycoplasma infection of cell lines can stimulate the expression of Fc receptors by binding of the carbohydrate moiety of antibodies. Eur J Immunol 1985; 15:442–447
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Alexander A. G., Lowes H. R., Kenny G. E. Identification of a mycoplasmal protein which binds immunoglobulins non-immunologically. Infect Immun 1991; 59:2147–2151
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Razin S. Mycoplasma adherence. In Razin S., Barile M. F. (eds) The mycoplasmas vol 4 Mycoplasma pathogenicity London: Academic Press; 1985161–202
    [Google Scholar]
  94. van Oss C. J. Phagocytosis as a surface phenomenon. Ann Rev Microbiol 1978; 32:19–39
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Watanabe T., Kumazawa T. Detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to cholesterol in antisera to mycoplasmas. Infect Immun 1991; 59:2200–2202
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Reynolds H. Y., Thompson R. E. Pulmonary host defenses: I. Analysis of protein and lipids in bronchial secretions and antibody responses after vaccination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Immunol 1973; 111:358–368
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Razin S., Rottem S., Hazin M., Gershfeld N. L. Binding of exogenous proteins and lipids to mycoplasma membranes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1973; 225:28–37
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Smith P. F. Antigenic character of membrane lipoglycans from Mollicutes—a review. Isr J Med Sci 1987; 23:448–452
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Ruschmeyer D., Thude H., Mülrahdt P. F. MDHM, a macrophage-activating product from Mycoplasma fermentans, stimulates murine macrophages to synthesize nitric oxide and become tumoricidal. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993; 7:223–229
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Mülrahdt P. F., Schade U. MDHM, a macrophage-stimulatory product of Mycoplasma fermentans, leads to in vitro interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, and prostaglandin production and is pyrogenic in rabbits. Infect Immun 1991; 59:3969–3974
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Rawadi G., Roman-Roman S. Cytokine induction by Mycoplasmas on human monocytic cell lines. IOM Lett 1994; 3:660–661
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Pietsch K., Ehlers S., Jacobs E. Cytokine gene expression in the lungs of BALB/c mice during primary and secondary intranasal infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Microbiology 1994; 140:2043–2048
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Meseguer M., Pacheco A., Baquero F., Bricio M. T. Induction of tumour necrosis factor-alpha by Mycoplasma pneumoniae on human alveolar macrophages. IOM Lett 1994; 3:652–653
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Herbelin A., Ruuth E., Delorme D., Michel-Herbelin C., Praz F. Mycoplasma arginini TUH-14 membrane lipoproteins induce production of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha by human monocytes. Infect Immun 1994; 62:4690–4694
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Mülrahdt P. F., Frisch M. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of a Mycoplasma fermentans-derived substance that activates macrophages to release nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6. Infect Immun 1994; 62:3801–3807
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Kostyal D. A., Butler G. H., Beezhold D. H. A 48-kilodalton Mycoplasma fermentans membrane protein induces cytokine secretion by human monocytes. Infect Immun 1994; 62:3793–3800
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Nishimoto M., Akashi K., Kuwano K., Tseng C. C., Ohizumi K., Arai S. Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the lungs of Mycoplasma pulmonis-infected mice. Microbiol Immunol 1994; 38:345–352
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Razin S., Jacobs E. Review article: mycoplasma adhesion. J Gen Microbiol 1992; 138:407–422
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Roberts D. D., Olson L. D., Barile M. F., Ginsburg V., Krivan H. C. Sialic acid-dependent adhesion of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to purified glycoproteins. J Biol Chem 1989; 264:9289–9293
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Krivan H. C., Olson L. D., Barile M. F., Ginsburg V., Roberts D. D. Adhesion of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to sulfated glycolipids and inhibition by dextran sulphate. J Biol Chem 1989; 264:9283–9288
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Bar-Shavit Z., Goldman R., Ofek I., Sharon N., Mirelman D. Mannose-binding activity of Escherichia coli: a determinant in the attachment and ingestion of the bacteria by macrophages. Infect Immun 1980; 29:417–424
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Leijh P. C. J., Van Furth R., van Zwet T. L. In vitro determination of phagocytosis and intracellular killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes. In Weir D. M. (ed) Handbook of experimental immunology Vol 2 Cellular immunology Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 198646.1–46.21
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Griffin F. M., Griffin J. A., Leider J. E., Silverstein S. C. Studies on the mechanism of phagocytosis. I. Requirements of circumferential attachment of particle–bound ligands to specific receptors on the macrophage plasma membrane. J Exp Med 1975; 142:1263–1282
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Rosenbusch R. F., Minion F. C. Cell envelope: morphology and biochemistry. In Maniloff J. (ed) Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis Washington: American Society for Microbiology; 199273–77
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Almeida R. A., Wannemuehler M. J., Rosenbusch R. F. Interaction of Mycoplasma dispar with bovine alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 1992; 60:2914–2929
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Almeida R. A., Rosenbusch R. F. Capsule like surface material of Mycoplasma dispar induced by in vitro growth in culture with bovine cells is antigenically related to similar structures expressed in vivo. Infect Immun 1991; 59:3119–3125
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Howard C. J. Variation in susceptibility of bovine mycoplasmas to killing by the alternative complement pathway in bovine serum. Immunology 1980; 41:561–568
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Bredt W., Bitter-Suermann D. Interaction between Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Guinea Pig complement. Infect Immun 1975; 11:497–504
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Barker L. F., Patt J. K. Role of complement in immune in activation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. J Bacteriol 1967; 94:403–408
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Fernald G. W., Clyde W. A., Denny F. W. Factors influencing growth inhibition of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by immune sera. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967; 126:161–166
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Bredt W. A. microscopic test for rapid detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Experientia 1969; 25:436–437
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Sethi K. K., Teschner M. A. study on the role of complement in the immune inhibition of mycoplasmal growth. Zentralbl Immunitaetsforsch 1969; 138:458–474
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Gale J. L., Kenny G. E. Complement dependent killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by antibody: kinetics of the reaction. J Immunol 1970; 104:1175–1183
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Tachibana D. K., Hayflick L., Rosenburg L. T. Effect of complete and genetically defective mouse complement on Mycoplasma canis. J Infect Dis 1970; 121:541–544
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Brunner H. S., Razin S., Kalica A. R., Chanock R. M. Lysis and death of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by antibody and complement. J Immunol 1971; 106:907–916
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Brunner H. S., James W. D., Horswood R. L., Chanock R. M. Measurement of Mycoplasma pneumoniae myco-plasmacidal antibody in human serum. J Immunol 1972; 109:1491–1498
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Brunner H., Kalica A. R., James W. D., Horswood R. L., Chanock R. M. Ultrastructural lesions in Mycoplasma pneumoniae membranes produced by antibody and complement. Infect Immun 1973; 7:259–264
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Bredt W., Wellek B., Brunner H., Loos M. Interactions between Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the first component of complement. Infect Immun 1977; 15:7–12
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Watanabe T. Proteolytic activity of Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale. Med Microbiol Immunol 1975; 161:127–132
    [Google Scholar]
  130. de Silva N. S., Quinn P. A. Endogenous activity of phospholipases A and C in Ureaplasma urealyticum. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 23:354–359
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Bhandari S., Asnani P. J. Characterization of phospholipase A2 of Mycoplasma species. Folia Microbiol (Pratia) 1989; 34:294–301
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Chappell J. B., Henderson L. M. The activation of the electrogenic NADPH oxidase. Biochem Soc Trans 1991; 19:67–70
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Roos D. Molecular events during phagocyte stimulation. Scand J Rheumatol 1981 Suppl 4046–52
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Arai S., Munakata T., Kuwano K. Mycoplasma interaction with lymphocytes and phagocytes: role of hydrogen peroxide released from Mpneumoniae. Yale J Biol Med 1983; 56:631–638
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Almagor M., Kahane I., Yatziv S. Role of superoxide anion in host cell injury induced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. A study in normal and trisomy 21 cells. J Clin Invest 1984; 73:842–847
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Kahane I. In vitro studies on the mechanism of adherence and pathogenicity of mycoplasmas. Isr J Med Sci 1984; 20:874–877
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Meier B., Habermehl G. G. Evidence for superoxide dismutase and catalase in mollicutes and release of reactive oxygen species. Arch Biochem Biophys 1990; 277:74–79
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Meier B., Habermehl G. G. Evidence for superoxide dismutase and catalase in mollicutes and release of reactive oxygen species. Free Rad Res Commun 1991; 12:451–454
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Almagor M., Kahane I., Gilon C., Yatziv S. Protective effects of the glutathione redox cycle and vitamin E on cultured fibroblasts infected by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infect Immun 1986; 52:240–244
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Bilzer M., Lauterberg B. H. Glutathione metabolism in activated human neutrophils: stimulation of glutathione synthesis and consumption of glutathione by reactive oxygen species. Eur J Clin Invest 1991; 21:316–322
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Paoletti F., Mocali A., Aldinucci D. Superoxide-driven NAD(P)H oxidation induced by EDTA-manganese complex and mercaptoethanol. Chem-Biol Interact 1990; 76:3–18
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Lo S. C., Shih J. W., Yang N. Y., Ou C. Y., Wang R. Y. A novel virus like infectious agent in patients with AIDS. Am J Trop Hyg Med 1989; 40:213–226
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Falkow S. Bacterial entry into eukaryotic cells: minireview. Cell 1991; 65:1099–1102
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Low I. E., Eaton M. D., Proctor P. Relation of catalase to substrate utilization by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 1968; 95:1425–1430
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Wadher B. J., Henderson C. L., Miles R. J., Varasani H. A mutant of Mycoplasma mycoides subspmycoides lacking the H2O2 producing enzyme L-α-glycerophosphate oxidase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1990; 72:127–130
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Lynch R. E., Cole B. C. Mycoplasma pneumoniae’, a prokaryote which consumes oxygen and generates superoxide but which lacks superoxide dismutase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1980; 96:98–105
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Stevens P., Young L. S. Quantitative granulocyte chemilumi nescence in the rapid detection of impaired opsonization of Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 1977; 16:796–804
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Dajani A. S., Ayoub E. M. Mycoplasmacidal effect of polymorphonuclear leukocyte extract. J Immunol 1969; 102:698–702
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Low I. E., Jacobs A. A., Sbarra A. J. Mycoplasmacidal activity of a leukocyte myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system. J Infect Dis 1973; 127: Suppl S72–S76
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Niederman R., Brunkhorst B., Smith S., Weinreb R. N., Ryder M. I. Ammonia as a potential mediator of adult human peridontal infection: inhibition of neutrophil function. Arch Oral Biol 1990; 35: Suppl S205–S209
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Brunkhorst B., Niederman R. Ammonium decreases human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoskeleton actin. Infect Immun 1991; 59:1378–1386
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Stalheim O. H. V., Gallagher J. E. Ureaplasmal epithelial lesions related to ammonia. Infect Immun 1977; 15:995–996
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Matsuura M., Seto K., Watanabe T. Ammonia production as a virulence expression by Mycoplasma salivarium. Microbiol Immunol 1990; 34:467–490
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Marietta M. A., Yoon P. S., Iyenger R., Leaf C. D., Wishonok J. S. Macrophage oxidation of l-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate. Biochemistry 1988; 27:8706–8711
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Keller R., Geiges M., Keist R. l-Arginine dependent reactive nitrogen intermediates as mediators of tumor cell killing by activated macrophages. Cancer Res 1990; 50:1421–1425
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Nathan C. F., Hibbs J. B. Role of nitric oxide synthesis in macrophage antimicrobial activity. Curr Opin Immunol 1991; 3:65–70
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Follin P., Dahlgren C. Altered O2−/H2O2 production ratio by in vitro and in vivo primed human neutrophils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 167:970–976
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Stuart P. M. Mycoplasmal induction of cytokine production and major histocompatibility complex expression. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: Suppl S1S187–S191
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Loos M., Brunner H. Complement components (C1, C2, C3. C4) in bronchial secretions after intranasal infection of Guinea Pigs with Mycoplasma pneumonia: dissociation of unspecific and specific defense mechanisms. Infect Immun 1979; 25:583–585
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Egwang T. G., Befus A. D. The role of complement in the induction and regulation of immune responses. Immunology 1984; 51:207–224
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Ezekowitz. R. A. B. Sim R. B., MacPherson G. G., Gordon S. Interaction of human monocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes with zymosan in vitro. Role of type 3 complement receptors and macrophage-derived complement. J Clin Invest 1985; 76:2368–2376
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Gelfand E. W. Unique susceptibility of patients with antibody deficiency to mycoplasma infection. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: Suppl S1250–253
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Slater T. F. Free-radical mechanisms in tissue injury. Biochem J 1984; 222:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-43-4-239
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-43-4-239
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error