1887

Abstract

Summary

The mechanisms modulating host susceptibility to endotoxin are unknown. Evidence suggests that endotoxin pathophysiology is mediated in part by oxidative reactions that lead to tissue damage and organ failure. The proposition is that conditions which favour oxidation sensitise the host to endotoxin. Central to this hypothesis is that an increase in the polyunsaturated fatty-acid composition of membrane phospholipids enhances susceptibility because such fatty acids are easily oxidised to produce mediators of the endotoxic crisis. Cytokines, such as tumournecrosis factor and interferon-γ, may be ultimately responsible for orchestrating these changes and thereby modify the host response to endotoxin.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-32-4-217
1990-08-01
2022-05-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/32/4/medmicro-32-4-217.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-32-4-217&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Suter E, Kirsanow EM. Hyperreactivity to endotoxin in mice infected with mycobacteria. Induction and elicitation of the reactions. Immunology 1961; 4:354–365
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Sanarelli G. De la pathologenie du cholera. IX. Le cholera experimental. Ann Inst Pasteur 1924; 38:11–72
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Shwartzman G. Studies in Bacillus typhosus toxic substances. I. Phenomenon of local skin reactivity to B. typhosus culture filtrate. J Exp Med 1928; 48:247–268
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Movat HZ, Burrowes CE, Cybulsky MI, Dinarello CA. Acute inflammation and a Shwartzman-like reaction induced by interleukin-I and tumour necrosis factor: synergistic action of the cytokines in the induction of inflammation on microvascular injury. Am J Pathol 1987; 129:463–476
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Rothstein JL, Schreiber H. Synergy between tumour necrosis factor and bacterial products causes hemorrhagic necrosis and lethal shock in normal mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85:607–611
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Billiau A, Heremans H, Vandekerckhove F, Dillen C. Anti-interferon-antibody protects mice against the generalized Shwartzman reaction. Eur J Immunol 1987; 17:1851–1854
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Girardin E, Grau GE, Dayer J-M, Roux-Lombard P, Lambert P-H. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-I in the serum of children with severe infectious purpura. New Eng J Med 1988; 319:397–400
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Valone SE, Rich EA, Wallis RS, Ellner JJ. Expression of tumour necrosis factor in vitro by human mononuclear phagocytes stimulated with whole Mycobacterium bovis BCG and mycobacterial antigens. Infect Immun 1988; 56:3313–3315
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Apitz K. A study of the generalized Shwartzman phenomenon. J Immunol 1935; 29:255–266
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Wong T-C. A study on the generalized Shwartzman reaction in pregnant rats induced by bacterial endotoxin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1962; 84:786–797
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Stamler FW. Fatal eclamptic disease of pregnant rats fed anti-vitamin E stress diet. Am J Pathol 1959; 35:1207–1231
    [Google Scholar]
  12. McKay DG, Wong T-C. Studies of the generalized Shwartzman reaction produced by diet. I. Pathology. J Exp Med 1962; 115:1117–1125
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Goldstein HB, McKay DG. Lipid peroxides and the diet-induced Shwartzman reaction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1965; 91:843–846
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Babior BM, Kipnes RS, Curnutte JT. Biological defence mechanisms: the production of leukocytes of superoxide, a potential bactericidal agent. J Clin Invest 1973; 52:741–744
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jackson SK, Stark JM, Rowlands CC, Evans JC. Is gram-negative shock a free-radical-mediated condition?. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1 1988; 84:3243–3248
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chaudhri G, Clark IA. Reactive oxygen species facilitate the in-vitro and in-vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced release of tumour necrosis factor. J Immunol 1989; 143:1290–1294
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Arthur MJP, Bentley IS, Tanner AR et al. Oxygen-derived free radicals promote hepatic injury in the rat. Gastroenterology 1985; 89:1114–1122
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Arthur M J P, Kowalski-Saunders P, Wright R. Effect of endotoxin on release of reactive oxygen intermediates by rat hepatic macrophages. Gastroenterology 1988; 95:1588–1594
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Peavy DL, Fairchild EJ. Evidence for lipid peroxidation in endotoxin-poisoned mice. Infect Immun 1986; 52:613616
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Stark J M, Jackson S K, Parton J. Increases in anti-oxidants after endotoxin in mice. In: Rice-Evans C, Dormandy T. (eds) Free radicals: chemistry, pathology and medicine Richelieu Press; 1988187–210
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Stark J M, Jackson S K, Woodhead B, Ryley H C. Tissue oxidation after endotoxin. Bioelectrochem Bio-energ 1987; 18:301–306
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jackson S K, Stark J M, Rowlands C C, Evans J C. Electron spin resonance detection of oxygen-centred radicals in murine macrophages stimulated with bacterial endotoxin. Free Radic Biol Med 1989; 7:165–170
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Brigham K L, Meyrick B, Berry L C, Repine J E. Anti oxidants protect cultured bovine lung endothelial cells from injury by endotoxin. J Appl Physiol 1987; 63:840850
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Yoshikawa T, Murakami M, Furukawa Y, Kato H, Takemura S, Kondo M. Lipid peroxidation and experimental disseminated intra-vascular coagulation in rats induced by endotoxin. Thromb Haemost 1983; 49:214–216
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jackson S K, Stark J M, Taylor S, Harwood J L. Changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition and triacyl-glyc- erol content in mouse tissues after infection with Bacille Calmette-Guerin. Br J Exp Pathol 1989; 70:435–441
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ferber E, De Pasquale G G, Resch K. Phospholipid metabolism of stimulated lymphocytes. Composition of phospholipid fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1975; 398:364–376
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Phillips W A, Mossmann H, Ferber E. Changes in the incorporation of free fatty acids upon the stimulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Leuko Biol 1986; 39:267–284
    [Google Scholar]
  28. McPhail L C, Clayton C C, Snyderman R. A potential second messenger role for unsaturated fatty acids: activation of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase. Science 1984; 224:622–625
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Flohe L, Giertz H. Endotoxins, arachidonic acid and superoxide formation. Rev Infect Dis 1987; 9:Suppl 5S553–S561
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Gardner H W. Oxygen radical chemistry of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free Radic Biol Med 1989; 7:65–86
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Benedetti A, Comporti M, Fulceri R, Esterbauer H. Cytotoxic aldehydes originating from the peroxidation of liver microsomal lipids. Identification of 4,5-dihy-droxydecenal. Biochim Biophys Acta 1984; 792:172–181
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bussolino F, Camussi G, Baglioni C. Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor by human vascular endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-I alpha. J Biol Chem 1988; 263:11856–11861
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-32-4-217
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-32-4-217
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error