SUMMARY. A small, fastidious gram-negative anaerobe was isolated from men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). The isolates are described as NGU-associated anaerobes because they were extremely rare in men with urethritis other than NGU, and in asymptomatic men. They showed twitching motility, had many polar pili and appeared to be a homogenous group culturally, morphologically and biochemically. None of the strains fermented or utilised carbohydrates or organic acids as sole sources of carbon for energy and growth. However, growth of all strains was stimulated by formate and fumarate in liquid and solid media, especially in the former where growth seemed dependent on these growth factors. Unlike most anaerobes they produced cytochrome enzyme(s) that might be involved in oxidation-reduction reactions in the presence of oxygen as some of the strains were capable of growing in 5% oxygen. However, growth and energy generally resulted from anaerobic phosphorylation. Strains of this anaerobe seemed to require a low redox-potential (Eh) for survival during transportation but this was not essential for growth. Comparative studies with the other asaccharolytic anaerobes showed some similarity between the NGU-associated anaerobe, and Like these, some NGU-associated strains pitted agar media and all produced urease. However, unlike these anaerobes, strains of the NGU-associated anaerobe produced enzymes for the hydrolysis of arginine, and the decarboxylation of lysine and ornithine. They also produced oxidase and some strains haemolysed sheep red cells. However, lactic acid was not an end-product of the metabolism of glucose by any of the strains. The NGU-associated anaerobes are strikingly different from anaerobic vibrios, and


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