1887

Abstract

The genes encoding the putative small hydrophobic (SH), attachment (G) and polymerase (L) proteins of the Colorado isolate of subgroup C avian pneumovirus (APV) were entirely or partially sequenced. They all included metapneumovirus (MPV)-like gene start and gene end sequences. The deduced Colorado SH protein shared 26·9 and 21·7 % aa identity with its counterpart in human MPV (hMPV) and APV subgroup A, respectively, but its only significant aa similarities were to hMPV. Conserved features included a common hydrophobicity profile with an unique transmembrane domain and the conservation of most extracellular cysteine residues. The Colorado putative G gene encoded several ORFs, the longer of which encoded a 252 aa long type II glycoprotein with aa similarities to hMPV G only (20·6 % overall aa identity with seven conserved N-terminal residues). The putative Colorado G protein shared, at best, 21·0 % aa identity with its counterparts in the other APV subgroups and did not contain the extracellular cysteine residues and short aa stretch highly conserved in other APVs. The N-terminal end of the Colorado L protein exhibited 73·6 and 54·9 % aa identity with hMPV and APV subgroup A, respectively, with four aa blocks highly conserved among . Phylogenetic analysis performed on the nt sequences confirmed that the L sequences from MPVs were genetically related, whereas analysis of the G sequences revealed that among MPVs, only APV subgroups A, B and D clustered together, independently of both the Colorado isolate and hMPV, which shared weak genetic relatedness at the G gene level.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19043-0
2003-08-01
2020-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/8/vir842169.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19043-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schaffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1997; ). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 3389–3402.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bäyon-Auboyer, M. H., Jestin, V., Toquin, D., Cherbonnel, M. & Eterradossi, N. ( 1999; ). Comparison of F-, G- and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Arch Virol 144, 1091–1109.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bäyon-Auboyer, M. H., Arnauld, C., Toquin, D. & Eterradossi, N. ( 2000; ). Nucleotide sequences of the F, L and G protein genes of two non-A/non-B avian pneumoviruses (APV) reveal a novel APV subgroup. J Gen Virol 81, 2723–2733.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bell, I. G. & Alexander, D. J. ( 1990; ). Failure to detect antibody to turkey rhinotracheitis virus in Australian poultry flocks. Aust Vet J 67, 232–233.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bukreyev, A., Whitehead, S. S., Murphy, B. R. & Collins, P. L. ( 1997; ). Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus from which the entire SH gene has been deleted grows efficiently in cell culture and exhibits site-specific attenuation in the respiratory tract of the mouse. J Virol 71, 8973–8982.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Buys, S. B. & Du Preez, J. H. ( 1980; ). A preliminary report on the isolation of a virus causing sinusitis in turkey in South Africa and attempts to attenuate the virus. Turkeys 28, 36–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chen, M. D., Vasquez, M., Kahn, J. S. & Buonocore, L. ( 2000; ). Conservation of the respiratory syncytial virus SH gene. J Infect Dis 182, 1228–1233.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Claros, M. G. & von Heijne, G. ( 1994; ). TopPredII: an improved software for membrane protein structure predictions. Comput Appl Biosci 10, 685–686.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Collins, M. S., Gough, R. E. & Alexander, D. J. ( 1993; ). Antigenic differentiation of avian pneumovirus isolates using polyclonal antisera and mouse monoclonal antibodies. Avian Pathol 22, 469–479.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cook, J. K. ( 2000; ). Avian rhinotracheitis. Rev Sci Tech 19, 602–613.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cook, J. K. A., Jones, B. V., Ellis, M. M., LI, J. & Cavanagh, D. ( 1993; ). Antigenic differentiation of strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus using monoclonal antibodies. Avian Pathol 22, 257–273.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cook, J. K. A., Huggins, M. B., Woods, M. A., Orbell, S. J. & Mockett, A. P. A. ( 1995; ). Protection provided by a commercially available vaccine against different strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Vet Rec 136, 392–393.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cook, J. K. A., Huggins, M. B., Orbell, S. J. & Senne, D. A. ( 1999; ). Preliminary antigenic characterization of an avian pneumovirus isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado, USA. Avian Pathol 28, 607–617.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Eterradossi, N., Toquin, D., Guittet, M. & Bennejean, G. ( 1995; ). Evaluation of different turkey rhinotracheitis viruses used as antigens for serological testing following live vaccination and challenge. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 342, 175–186.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Felsenstein, J. ( 1993; ). phylip: Phylogenic Inference Package, version 3.52c. Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
  16. Freymuth, F., Eterradossi, N., Toquin, D., Jestin, V., Vabret, A., Petitjean, J. & Gouarin, S. ( 2002; ). First detection of human metapneumovirus in hospitalized children in France. Virologie 6, S14 (in French).
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Giraud, P., Bennejean, G., Guittet, M. & Toquin, D. ( 1986; ). Turkey rhinotracheitis in France: preliminary investigations on a ciliostatic virus. Vet Rec 119, 606–607.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gupta, R., Jung, E. & Brunak, S. ( 2002; ). Prediction of N-glycosylation sites in human proteins (http://genome.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetNGlyc/)
  19. Hansen, J. E., Lund, O., Tolstrup, N., Gooley, A. A., Williams, K. L. & Brunak, S. ( 1998; ). NetOglyc: prediction of mucin type O-glycosylation sites based on sequence context and surface accessibility. Glycoconj J 15, 115–130.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hendricks, D. A., Baradaran, K., McIntosh, K. & Patterson, J. L. ( 1987; ). Appearance of a soluble form of the G protein of respiratory syncytial virus in fluids of infected cells. J Gen Virol 68, 1705–1714.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Juhasz, K. & Easton, A. J. ( 1994; ). Extensive sequence variation in the attachment (G) protein gene of avian pneumovirus: evidence for two distinct subgroups. J Gen Virol 75, 2873–2880.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Karger, A., Schmidt, U. & Buchholz, U. J. ( 2001; ). Recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus with deletions of the G or SH genes: G and F proteins bind heparin. J Gen Virol 82, 631–640.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Karron, R. A., Buonagurio, D. A., Georgiu, A. F. & 8 other authors ( 1997; ). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) SH and G proteins are not essential for viral replication in vitro: clinical evaluation and molecular characterization of a cold-passaged, attenuated RSV subgroup B mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 13961–13966.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lichtenstein, D. L., Roberts, S. R., Wertz, G. W. & Ball, L. A. ( 1996; ). Definition and functional analysis of the signal anchor domain of the human respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein G. J Gen Virol 77, 109–118.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ling, R., Easton, A. J. & Pringle, C. R. ( 1992; ). Sequence analysis of the 22K, SH and G genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus and their intergenic regions reveals a gene order different from that of other pneumoviruses. J Gen Virol 73, 1709–1715.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. McDougall, J. S. & Cook, J. K. A. ( 1986; ). Turkey rhinotracheitis: preliminary investigations. Vet Rec 118, 206–207.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nielsen, H., Engelbrecht, J., Brunak, S. & von Heijne, G. ( 1997; ). Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites. Protein Eng 10, 1–6.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Nissen, M. D., Sieberg, D. J., Mackay, I. M., Sloots, TP. & Withers, S. J. ( 2002; ). Evidence of human metapneumovirus in Australian children. Med J Aust 176, 188.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Peret, T. C., Boivin, G., Li, Y., Couillard, M., Humphrey, C., Osterhaus, A. D., Erdman, D. D. & Anderson, L. J. ( 2002; ). Characterization of human metapneumoviruses isolated from patients in North America. J Infect Dis 185, 1660–1663.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Pringle, C. R. ( 1998; ). Virus taxonomy – San Diego 1998. Arch Virol 143, 1449–1459.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Randhawa, J. S., Wilson, S. D., Tolley, K. P., Cavanagh, D., Pringle, C. R. & Easton, A. J. ( 1996; ). Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the viral polymerase of avian pneumovirus. J Gen Virol 77, 3047–3051.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Roberts, S. R., Lichtenstein, D. L., Ball, L. A. & Wertz, G. W. ( 1994; ). The membrane-associated and secreted forms of the respiratory syncytial virus attachment glycoprotein G are synthesized from alternative initiation codons. J Virol 68, 4538–4546.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Rueda, P., Delgado, T., Portela, A., Melero, J. A. & Garcia-Barreno, B. ( 1991; ). Premature stop codons in the G glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial viruses resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 65, 3374–3378.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Seal, B. S. ( 1998; ). Matrix protein gene nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence demonstrate that the first US avian pneumovirus isolate is distinct from European strains. Virus Res 58, 45–52.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Seal, B. S. ( 2000; ). Avian pneumoviruses and emergence of a new type in the United States of America. Anim Health Res Rev 1, 67–72.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Senne, D. A., Edson, R. K., Pedersen, J. C. & Panigraphy, B. ( 1997; ). Avian pneumovirus update. In Proceedings of the 134th Annual Congress of the American Veterinary Medical Association, p. 190. Reno, NV, USA.
  37. Shin, H. J., Cameron, K. T., Jacobs, J. A. & 8 other authors ( 2002; ). Molecular epidemiology of subgroup C avian pneumoviruses isolated in the United States and comparison with subgroup A and B viruses. J Clin Microbiol 40, 1687–1693.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Stec, D. S., Hill, M. G., III & Collins, P. L. ( 1991; ). Sequence analysis of the polymerase L gene of human respiratory syncytial virus and predicted phylogeny of nonsegmented negative-strand viruses. Virology 183, 273–287.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Techaarpornkul, S., Barretto, N. & Peeples, M. E. ( 2001; ). Functional analysis of recombinant respiratory syncytial virus deletion mutants lacking the small hydrophobic and/or attachment glycoprotein gene. J Virol 75, 6825–6834.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Toquin, D., Eterradossi, N., Guittet, M. & Bennejean, G. ( 1992; ). Infectious rhinotracheitis in turkeys: antigenic differences revealed by ELISA. In European Commission Proceedings: New and Evolving Pathogens Virus Diseases of Poultry, pp. 111–121. Edited by M. S. McNulty & J. B. McFerran. Publication VI/4104/94-EN, III-121.
  42. Toquin, D., Eterradossi, N. & Guittet, M. ( 1996; ). Use of a related ELISA antigen for efficient TRT serological testing following live vaccination. Vet Rec 139, 71–72.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Toquin, D., Bäyon-Auboyer, M. H., Jestin, V., Eterradossi, N. & Morin, H. ( 1999a; ). Isolation of a pneumovirus from a Muscovy duck. Vet Rec 145, 680.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Toquin, D., Bäyon-Auboyer, M. H., Jestin, V. & Eterradossi, N. ( 1999b; ). Serological response and cross protection following infection by a non-A, non-B strain of turkey infectious rhinotracheitis virus. Proceedings Troisièmes Journées de la Recherche Avicole, pp. 221–224 (St Malo, France, 23–25 March 1999) (in French).
  45. Toquin, D., Bäyon-Auboyer, M. H., Senne, D. A. & Eterradossi, N. ( 2000; ). Lack of antigenic relationship between French and recent North American non-A/non-B turkey rhinotracheitis viruses. Avian Dis 44, 977–982.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. van den Hoogen, B. G., de Jong, J. C., Groen, J., Kuiken, T., de Groot, R., Fouchier, R. A. & Osterhaus, A. D. ( 2001; ). A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat Med 7, 719–724.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. van den Hoogen, B. G., Besteboer, T. M., Osterhaus, A. D. & Fouchier, R. A. ( 2002; ). Analysis of the genomic sequence of a human metapneumovirus. Virology 295, 119–132.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Yu, Q., Davis, P. J., Li, J. & Cavanagh, D. ( 1992; ). Cloning and sequencing of the matrix protein (M) gene of turkey rhinotracheitis virus reveal a gene order different from that of respiratory syncytial virus. Virology 186, 426–434.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19043-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19043-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error