Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is classified into different phylogenetic subtypes, with subtype C representing more than half of the novel infections globally. However, there are relatively few subtype C envelopes available for study. We amplified 18 unique genes from 13 patients who were infected with subtype C HIV-1 in six African countries and in Scotland to create replication-competent viruses. These envelopes are phylogenetically diverse across the subtype C spectrum, and have on average more -linked glycosylation sites and slightly longer variable loops than previously described C envelopes. We found that CCR3 coreceptor usage is less prevalent in subtype C than in subtype B viruses, and these envelopes have varied sensitivity to neutralization. The subtype C chimeric viruses generated in this study will be useful for evaluating the breadth of neutralizing antibodies and other entry inhibitors.


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vol. , part 9, pp. 2374 - 2380

Amino acid sequence alignments

Patient data and virus clones

Primers used in subtype C Env cloning

PNLGS and the length of the variable loops

CCR3 use by the Tier 2 clade B reference strain panel of gp160 clones

CCR3 use by the Tier 2 African clade C reference strain panel of gp160 clones [Single PDF file](130 KB)


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